Employee Benefits in the United States News Release


Technical Contact:                                      USDL:  08-1122
     (202) 691-6199  NCSinfo@bls.gov

Media Contact:                                          FOR RELEASE:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
     (202) 691-5902                                     THURSDAY, AUGUST 7, 2008
Internet address:
     http://www.bls.gov/ebs


                         EMPLOYEE BENEFITS IN THE UNITED STATES, MARCH 2008


     Two-thirds of private industry and State and local government workers (defined in this
survey as civilian workers) had access to retirement benefits and nearly three-quarters to
medical care in March 2008, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor
reported today.  Access and participation in retirement and medical care benefits were
greater in State and local government than in private industry.  The data are from the
National Compensation Survey (NCS), which provides comprehensive measures of occupational
earnings, compensation cost trends, and incidence and provisions of employee benefit plans.
For the first time, this release includes data on benefits for civilian workers.  Farm
and private household workers, the self-employed, and the Federal government are excluded
from the survey.

     The following are some of the major findings:

     * Sixty-one percent of private industry employees had access to paid retirement benefits,
     compared with 89 percent of State and local government employees.  Eighty-six percent of
     government employees participated in a retirement plan, significantly greater than the
     approximately half of private industry workers.  (See table 1.)

     * Medical care benefits were available to 71 percent of private industry workers, compared
     with 87 percent among government workers.  About half of private industry workers participated
     in a plan, less than the nearly three-quarters of government workers.  (See table 2.)

     * Virtually all full-time employees in State and local government had access to retirement
     and medical benefits: 99 and 98 percent, respectively.  In private industry, only 71 percent
     of full-time workers had access to retirement benefits and 85 percent to medical care.
     (See tables 1 and 2.)

     * Employers paid 83 percent of the cost of premiums for single coverage and 71 percent of
     the cost for family coverage for workers participating in employer sponsored medical plans.
     Employer share for single coverage was greater in State and local government (90 percent)
     than in private industry (81 percent).  For family coverage, the employer share of premiums
     was similar for private industry and government, 71 and 73 percent, respectively.
     (See tables 3 and 4.)

     Incidence of employee benefits varied by employer and employee characteristics; patterns
varied between private industry and State and local government.  For example, while access
to employee benefits showed substantial variation by full- and part-time status in all
establishments, the differences, except for holidays and vacations, were greater in State
and local government than in private industry, where occupational group and establishment size
played a greater role.   Service occupations in private industry had significantly lower
rates of access to major benefits than workers in management, professional, and related
occupations, whereas in State and local government the differences between these two groups
were not as large.


     Access to paid holidays and paid vacations was greater in private industry, due in part
to the fact that many teachers and other employees in educational services who are employed on
the basis of 9-month contracts do not receive formal paid holidays or vacation benefits (see
Technical Note for more information on this topic).

     More information can be obtained by calling (202) 691-6199, sending e-mail to NCSinfo@bls.gov,
or by visiting the BLS Internet site, http://www.bls.gov/ncs/home.htm.  Regional Information
offices, listed on the Internet site, http://www.bls.gov/bls/regncon.htm, also are available
to answer any of your questions.


____________________________________________________________________________________________________

     More information will be published later this summer.  Included will be data for civilian,
private industry, and State and local government workers on the incidence and provisions of
health care benefits, retirement benefits, life insurance, short-term and long-term disability
benefits, paid holidays and vacations, and other selected benefits.  These results will be found
on the BLS Web site http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs.

     In addition, starting in the fall of 2008, a new "National Compensation Survey Benefit
Series" will be introduced.  As part of the new BLS Program Perspectives publication, the benefits
series will bring together a variety of benefits information from the National Compensation Survey
into one publication.  This publication will be available online at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________



Table 1. Retirement benefits:(1) Access, participation, and take-up rates,(2) National Compensation Survey, March 2008

(All workers = 100 percent)


                                        Civilian(3)                 Private industry         State and local government

       Characteristics
                                 Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up
                                           ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate


All workers...................     66        56        86        61        51        83        89        86        96

    Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and
related.......................     81        74        92        76        68        90        91        88        96
  Management, business, and
  financial...................     83        79        94        82        77        94        -         -         -
  Professional and related....     80        73        91        73        64        88        91        88        96
    Teachers..................     82        79        96        -         -         -         91        88        97
      Primary, secondary, and
      special education school
      teachers................     90        88        98        -         -         -         96        95        98
    Registered nurses.........     80        68        85        -         -         -         94        88        93
Service.......................     44        34        76        37        25        68        83        79        96
  Protective service..........     -         -         -         -         -         -         91        87        96
Sales and office..............     67        57        85        65        55        84        90        87        97
  Sales and related...........     60        46        77        60        46        77        -         -         -
  Office and administrative
  support.....................     71        64        90        68        60        88        91        88        97
Natural resources,
construction, and maintenance      65        56        86        62        52        84        93        91        98
  Construction, extraction,
  farming, fishing, and
  forestry....................     61        51        84        58        47        82        -         -         -
  Installation, maintenance,
  and repair..................     69        61        88        67        58        86        -         -         -
Production, transportation,
and material moving...........     66        55        83        65        54        82        87        85        98
  Production..................     68        57        84        68        57        84        -         -         -
  Transportation and material
  moving......................     64        53        82        63        51        81        -         -         -

Full time.....................     75        66        87        71        60        85        99        95        97
Part time.....................     33        25        76        32        23        73        40        37        94

Union.........................     90        86        96        85        80        95        97        94        97
Nonunion......................     61        51        83        59        48        81        83        80        96

Average wage within the
following percentiles:(4)
  Less than 10................     26        15        59        25        14        57        58        55        94
  10 to under 25..............     45        32        72        41        28        68        84        81        96
  25 to under 50..............     66        55        83        63        50        80        93        90        96
  50 to under 75..............     76        68        90        70        61        87        95        91        96
  75 to under 90..............     84        78        93        79        73        91        97        94        97
  90 or greater...............     88        82        94        84        78        92        98        95        97

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries....     72        62        87        71        62        86        -         -         -

Service-providing industries..     64        55        86        59        49        82        89        86        96
  Education and health
  services....................     75        67        90        64        54        84        91        88        97
    Educational services......     85        82        96        64        58        91        91        88        97
      Elementary and secondary
      schools.................     89        87        98        -         -         -         92        90        98
      Junior colleges,
      colleges, and
      universities............     85        79        93        85        77        91        85        80        94
    Health care and social
    assistance................     67        56        84        64        53        83        92        85        93
      Hospitals...............     88        78        88        -         -         -         93        84        91
  Public administration.......     89        86        96        -         -         -         89        86        96

1 to 99 workers...............     47        39        82        45        37        81        77        75        97
  1 to 49 workers.............     42        35        83        41        34        82        71        69        97
  50 to 99 workers............     59        48        81        58        45        79        85        83        98
100 workers or more...........     82        72        88        79        67        85        91        88        96
  100 to 499 workers..........     75        63        85        73        60        83        87        84        96
  500 workers or more.........     89        80        90        87        76        87        93        89        96

       Geographic areas

New England...................     60        53        89        56        49        87        85        82        96
Middle Atlantic...............     66        60        91        62        55        90        90        87        96
East North Central............     67        59        89        64        56        87        85        82        97
West North Central............     68        60        89        64        56        87        89        83        93
South Atlantic................     68        56        83        63        50        79        90        86        95
East South Central............     70        53        76        65        45        69        90        86        96
West South Central............     61        52        84        56        45        80        91        89        99
Mountain......................     67        56        83        63        51        80        89        87        97
Pacific.......................     64        55        86        58        49        83        92        89        97

  1 Includes defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans. Workers are considered as having
access or as participating if they have access to or participate in at least one of these plan types.
  2 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.
  3 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
  4 The percentile groupings are based on the average wage for each occupation surveyed, which may include workers both
above and below the threshold. The percentile values are based on the estimates published in the "National Compensation
Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007." See Technical Note for more details.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria.



Table 2. Medical care benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,(1) National Compensation Survey, March 2008

(All workers = 100 percent)


                                        Civilian(2)                 Private industry         State and local government

       Characteristics
                                 Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up
                                           ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate


All workers...................     74        56        76        71        53        75        87        73        83

    Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and
related.......................     87        70        80        86        68        79        90        74        83
  Management, business, and
  financial...................     94        78        83        94        77        82        -         -         -
  Professional and related....     84        67        79        82        64        78        89        73        82
    Teachers..................     83        67        80        -         -         -         88        73        83
      Primary, secondary, and
      special education school
      teachers................     91        73        80        -         -         -         95        78        83
    Registered nurses.........     76        59        77        -         -         -         93        72        77
Service.......................     52        35        67        46        29        62        80        67        83
  Protective service..........     -         -         -         -         -         -         89        76        86
Sales and office..............     73        53        73        71        51        72        88        75        84
  Sales and related...........     63        43        67        63        42        67        -         -         -
  Office and administrative
  support.....................     78        60        76        77        57        75        89        75        84
Natural resources,
construction, and maintenance      78        64        81        77        62        81        94        80        86
  Construction, extraction,
  farming, fishing, and
  forestry....................     73        59        81        71        57        81        -         -         -
  Installation, maintenance,
  and repair..................     84        69        82        83        68        81        -         -         -
Production, transportation,
and material moving...........     78        61        79        78        61        78        82        70        85
  Production..................     83        67        81        82        67        81        -         -         -
  Transportation and material
  moving......................     74        56        76        73        55        75        -         -         -

Full time.....................     88        68        78        85        65        76        98        83        84
Part time.....................     25        15        60        24        14        60        28        18        65

Union.........................     91        79        86        88        79        89        95        79        83
Nonunion......................     70        52        74        69        50        73        81        67        83

Average wage within the
following percentiles:(3)
  Less than 10................     25        13        52        25        13        51        52        39        76
  10 to under 25..............     51        31        61        48        28        59        81        67        82
  25 to under 50..............     79        58        74        77        55        72        91        77        85
  50 to under 75..............     86        70        81        84        67        79        94        80        85
  75 to under 90..............     90        75        83        88        72        83        97        80        83
  90 or greater...............     92        76        82        91        75        82        97        81        84

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries....     85        69        82        85        69        82        -         -         -

Service-providing industries..     71        53        75        68        49        73        87        73        83
  Education and health
  services....................     80        60        75        74        51        69        88        72        81
    Educational services......     86        69        81        76        58        77        88        72        82
      Elementary and secondary
      schools.................     88        70        80        -         -         -         89        72        81
      Junior colleges,
      colleges, and
      universities............     87        72        83        90        73        81        86        72        84
    Health care and social
    assistance................     75        52        69        74        50        68        91        71        78
      Hospitals...............     88        67        76        -         -         -         94        70        75
  Public administration.......     88        76        86        -         -         -         88        76        86

1 to 99 workers...............     60        44        73        60        43        72        74        63        85
  1 to 49 workers.............     56        41        72        56        40        72        68        58        86
  50 to 99 workers............     71        52        74        70        51        73        83        70        84
100 workers or more...........     85        67        79        84        65        77        89        74        83
  100 to 499 workers..........     81        61        76        80        60        74        84        72        85
  500 workers or more.........     89        72        81        88        71        81        91        75        82

       Geographic areas

New England...................     70        51        72        68        48        71        85        68        80
Middle Atlantic...............     74        58        78        72        55        76        85        77        90
East North Central............     72        55        76        71        54        75        80        63        78
West North Central............     72        56        78        69        54        77        83        66        80
South Atlantic................     76        57        75        73        53        73        90        75        83
East South Central............     78        61        78        75        57        77        93        75        81
West South Central............     70        52        74        66        47        71        90        76        84
Mountain......................     72        53        73        70        49        71        87        72        83
Pacific.......................     75        61        81        72        58        80        90        77        86

  1 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.
  2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
  3 The percentile groupings are based on the average wage for each occupation surveyed, which may include workers both
above and below the threshold. The percentile values are based on the estimates published in the "National Compensation
Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007." See Technical Note for more details.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria.



Table 3. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for single
coverage, National Compensation Survey, March 2008

(In percent)


                                   Civilian(1)       Private industry    State and local
                                                                            government

       Characteristics
                                Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee
                                share of  share of  share of  share of  share of  share of
                                premium   premium   premium   premium   premium   premium


All workers participating in
single coverage medical plans      83        17        81        19        90        10

    Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and
related.......................     84        16        82        18        90        10
  Management, business, and
  financial...................     83        17        82        18        -         -
  Professional and related....     85        15        82        18        90        10
    Teachers..................     90        10        -         -         91         9
      Primary, secondary, and
      special education school
      teachers................     90        10        -         -         90        10
    Registered nurses.........     82        18        -         -         86        14
Service.......................     81        19        77        23        90        10
  Protective service..........     -         -         -         -         91         9
Sales and office..............     81        19        80        20        90        10
  Sales and related...........     77        23        77        23        -         -
  Office and administrative
  support.....................     82        18        81        19        90        10
Natural resources,
construction, and maintenance      84        16        84        16        90        10
  Construction, extraction,
  farming, fishing, and
  forestry....................     87        13        87        13        -         -
  Installation, maintenance,
  and repair..................     81        19        80        20        -         -
Production, transportation,
and material moving...........     83        17        83        17        91         9
  Production..................     83        17        83        17        -         -
  Transportation and material
  moving......................     83        17        82        18        -         -

Full time.....................     83        17        81        19        90        10
Part time.....................     79        21        78        22        88        12

Union.........................     91         9        92         8        91         9
Nonunion......................     80        20        79        21        89        11

Average wage within the
following percentiles:(2)
  Less than 10................     74        26        73        27        90        10
  10 to under 25..............     77        23        76        24        89        11
  25 to under 50..............     81        19        79        21        90        10
  50 to under 75..............     84        16        82        18        91         9
  75 to under 90..............     86        14        84        16        90        10
  90 or greater...............     85        15        82        18        91         9

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries....     84        16        84        16        -         -

Service-providing industries..     83        17        80        20        90        10
  Education and health
  services....................     86        14        82        18        90        10
    Educational services......     89        11        83        17        90        10
      Elementary and secondary
      schools.................     90        10        -         -         90        10
      Junior colleges,
      colleges, and
      universities............     88        12        82        18        90        10
    Health care and social
    assistance................     83        17        82        18        87        13
      Hospitals...............     83        17        -         -         87        13
  Public administration.......     90        10        -         -         90        10

1 to 99 workers...............     82        18        81        19        92         8
  1 to 49 workers.............     82        18        81        19        92         8
  50 to 99 workers............     81        19        80        20        91         9
100 workers or more...........     84        16        81        19        90        10
  100 to 499 workers..........     82        18        81        19        91         9
  500 workers or more.........     85        15        82        18        90        10

       Geographic areas

New England...................     79        21        78        22        88        12
Middle Atlantic...............     85        15        83        17        94         6
East North Central............     82        18        81        19        91         9
West North Central............     83        17        82        18        91         9
South Atlantic................     81        19        80        20        88        12
East South Central............     80        20        77        23        92         8
West South Central............     83        17        82        18        88        12
Mountain......................     82        18        80        20        92         8
Pacific.......................     85        15        84        16        89        11

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households,
and workers in the public sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for
further explanation.
  2 The percentile groupings are based on the average wage for each occupation surveyed,
which may include workers both above and below the threshold. The percentile values are
based on the estimates published in the "National Compensation Survey: Occupational
Earnings in the United States, 2007." See Technical Note for more details.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication
criteria.



Table 4. Medical plans: Share of premiums paid by employer and employee for family
coverage, National Compensation Survey, March 2008

(In percent)


                                   Civilian(1)       Private industry    State and local
                                                                            government

       Characteristics
                                Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee  Employer  Employee
                                share of  share of  share of  share of  share of  share of
                                premium   premium   premium   premium   premium   premium


All workers participating in
family coverage medical plans      71        29        71        29        73        27

    Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and
related.......................     72        28        72        28        72        28
  Management, business, and
  financial...................     72        28        72        28        -         -
  Professional and related....     72        28        72        28        72        28
    Teachers..................     70        30        -         -         70        30
      Primary, secondary, and
      special education school
      teachers................     68        32        -         -         68        32
    Registered nurses.........     71        29        -         -         75        25
Service.......................     69        31        66        34        75        25
  Protective service..........     -         -         -         -         79        21
Sales and office..............     69        31        68        32        75        25
  Sales and related...........     67        33        67        33        -         -
  Office and administrative
  support.....................     69        31        68        32        75        25
Natural resources,
construction, and maintenance      73        27        73        27        75        25
  Construction, extraction,
  farming, fishing, and
  forestry....................     74        26        74        26        -         -
  Installation, maintenance,
  and repair..................     72        28        71        29        -         -
Production, transportation,
and material moving...........     75        25        75        25        75        25
  Production..................     77        23        77        23        -         -
  Transportation and material
  moving......................     73        27        72        28        -         -

Full time.....................     71        29        71        29        73        27
Part time.....................     69        31        68        32        76        24

Union.........................     85        15        87        13        81        19
Nonunion......................     67        33        68        32        66        34

Average wage within the
following percentiles:(2)
  Less than 10................     63        37        63        37        61        39
  10 to under 25..............     64        36        64        36        69        31
  25 to under 50..............     68        32        68        32        75        25
  50 to under 75..............     72        28        71        29        74        26
  75 to under 90..............     74        26        75        25        73        27
  90 or greater...............     76        24        75        25        81        19

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries....     76        24        76        24        -         -

Service-providing industries..     70        30        69        31        73        27
  Education and health
  services....................     69        31        68        32        70        30
    Educational services......     69        31        67        33        69        31
      Elementary and secondary
      schools.................     68        32        -         -         68        32
      Junior colleges,
      colleges, and
      universities............     71        29        69        31        73        27
    Health care and social
    assistance................     69        31        69        31        75        25
      Hospitals...............     73        27        -         -         74        26
  Public administration.......     79        21        -         -         79        21

1 to 99 workers...............     67        33        66        34        72        28
  1 to 49 workers.............     67        33        66        34        70        30
  50 to 99 workers............     67        33        66        34        74        26
100 workers or more...........     74        26        74        26        74        26
  100 to 499 workers..........     72        28        72        28        74        26
  500 workers or more.........     75        25        76        24        73        27

       Geographic areas

New England...................     73        27        71        29        83        17
Middle Atlantic...............     78        22        75        25        92         8
East North Central............     77        23        75        25        85        15
West North Central............     72        28        72        28        71        29
South Atlantic................     66        34        66        34        65        35
East South Central............     64        36        66        34        58        42
West South Central............     64        36        66        34        54        46
Mountain......................     67        33        67        33        69        31
Pacific.......................     74        26        72        28        79        21

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households,
and workers in the public sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for
further explanation.
  2 The percentile groupings are based on the average wage for each occupation surveyed,
which may include workers both above and below the threshold. The percentile values are
based on the estimates published in the "National Compensation Survey: Occupational
Earnings in the United States, 2007." See Technical Note for more details.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication
criteria.



Table 5. Life insurance benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,(1) National Compensation Survey, March 2008

(All workers = 100 percent)


                                        Civilian(2)                 Private industry         State and local government

       Characteristics
                                 Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up    Access  Particip-  Take-up
                                           ation      rate               ation      rate               ation      rate


All workers...................     62        60        96        59        56        96        79        77        97

    Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and
related.......................     77        75        98        76        74        98        80        78        97
  Management, business, and
  financial...................     85        83        98        85        83        98        -         -         -
  Professional and related....     74        73        98        72        70        98        79        77        97
    Teachers..................     72        70        97        -         -         -         78        76        97
      Primary, secondary, and
      special education school
      teachers................     76        75        98        -         -         -         82        80        98
    Registered nurses.........     68        66        97        -         -         -         83        81        98
Service.......................     42        39        93        36        33        91        75        73        97
  Protective service..........     -         -         -         -         -         -         85        83        98
Sales and office..............     61        58        95        59        56        95        81        79        98
  Sales and related...........     50        46        93        50        46        93        -         -         -
  Office and administrative
  support.....................     67        65        97        65        62        96        81        80        98
Natural resources,
construction, and maintenance      58        56        96        56        53        96        89        88        99
  Construction, extraction,
  farming, fishing, and
  forestry....................     49        47        95        46        43        94        -         -         -
  Installation, maintenance,
  and repair..................     69        67        97        67        65        97        -         -         -
Production, transportation,
and material moving...........     67        64        96        66        63        96        77        75        97
  Production..................     72        70        97        72        70        97        -         -         -
  Transportation and material
  moving......................     61        58        95        60        57        94        -         -         -

Full time.....................     75        72        96        72        69        96        90        87        98
Part time.....................     17        15        89        16        14        88        24        23        95

Union.........................     82        80        98        77        76        98        87        85        98
Nonunion......................     58        56        95        57        54        95        74        71        96

Average wage within the
following percentiles:(3)
  Less than 10................     18        16        88        17        16        89        44        42        95
  10 to under 25..............     40        36        89        36        32        87        74        72        97
  25 to under 50..............     65        62        96        63        60        95        84        82        97
  50 to under 75..............     73        71        97        69        67        97        85        84        98
  75 to under 90..............     79        78        98        76        75        98        88        86        98
  90 or greater...............     84        82        98        82        81        98        89        87        97

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries....     71        68        97        70        68        97        -         -         -

Service-providing industries..     60        58        96        56        53        95        79        77        97
  Education and health
  services....................     69        67        97        62        60        96        79        77        97
    Educational services......     76        74        97        65        64        98        78        76        97
      Elementary and secondary
      schools.................     75        74        98        -         -         -         77        76        98
      Junior colleges,
      colleges, and
      universities............     83        80        96        85        85        99        82        77        94
    Health care and social
    assistance................     64        61        96        62        59        96        84        82        97
      Hospitals...............     85        83        98        -         -         -         89        86        97
  Public administration.......     82        80        98        -         -         -         82        80        98

1 to 99 workers...............     44        41        95        43        40        94        64        62        97
  1 to 49 workers.............     39        37        94        38        36        94        63        61        98
  50 to 99 workers............     55        53        95        54        52        95        66        63        96
100 workers or more...........     78        76        97        77        74        96        82        80        97
  100 to 499 workers..........     71        68        95        71        67        95        73        72        98
  500 workers or more.........     85        83        98        85        83        98        85        83        97

       Geographic areas

New England...................     58        56        98        55        53        98        76        73        97
Middle Atlantic...............     60        59        98        56        55        98        84        83        99
East North Central............     66        63        96        64        61        96        77        74        96
West North Central............     63        60        97        60        58        96        75        74        99
South Atlantic................     66        63        95        62        59        95        84        81        96
East South Central............     68        65        95        66        62        95        80        75        94
West South Central............     60        56        94        57        53        93        75        74        99
Mountain......................     60        56        94        56        52        93        83        81        97
Pacific.......................     57        55        96        53        51        96        77        77        99

  1 The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the plan,
rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.
  2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
  3 The percentile groupings are based on the average wage for each occupation surveyed, which may include workers both
above and below the threshold. The percentile values are based on the estimates published in the "National Compensation
Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007." See Technical Note for more details.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria.



Table 6. Selected paid leave benefits: Access, National Compensation Survey, March 2008

(All workers = 100 percent)


                                        Civilian(1)                 Private industry         State and local government

       Characteristics
                                  Paid      Paid      Paid      Paid      Paid      Paid      Paid      Paid      Paid
                                holidays  vacation  personal  holidays  vacation  personal  holidays  vacation  personal
                                                     leave                         leave                         leave


All workers...................     76        75        41        77        78        37        68        60        59

    Worker characteristics

Management, professional, and
related.......................     80        74        58        89        87        55        57        44        64
  Management, business, and
  financial...................     94        94        55        96        96        54        -         -         -
  Professional and related....     74        67        59        86        84        55        51        37        65
    Teachers..................     37        18        65        -         -         -         32        13        70
      Primary, secondary, and
      special education school
      teachers................     34        14        75        -         -         -         29         9        78
    Registered nurses.........     81        77        56        -         -         -         82        80        49
Service.......................     56        63        30        52        61        26        78        75        52
  Protective service..........     -         -         -         -         -         -         86        87        55
Sales and office..............     82        81        40        81        80        39        87        85        54
  Sales and related...........     72        72        34        72        72        34        -         -         -
  Office and administrative
  support.....................     88        86        44        88        86        42        87        86        56
Natural resources,
construction, and maintenance      78        77        28        76        76        26        95        94        46
  Construction, extraction,
  farming, fishing, and
  forestry....................     65        65        20        62        63        18        -         -         -
  Installation, maintenance,
  and repair..................     93        92        37        93        91        35        -         -         -
Production, transportation,
and material moving...........     85        82        33        85        83        32        76        64        59
  Production..................     92        90        33        92        90        32        -         -         -
  Transportation and material
  moving......................     78        75        33        78        76        31        -         -         -

Full time.....................     86        86        46        89        90        42        75        68        65
Part time.....................     39        37        22        40        39        21        31        20        30

Union.........................     79        73        57        85        84        47        70        57        72
Nonunion......................     75        76        38        76        77        36        67        62        49

Average wage within the
following percentiles:(2)
  Less than 10................     38        42        17        38        43        17        48        40        36
  10 to under 25..............     63        64        28        61        63        25        75        66        50
  25 to under 50..............     83        83        39        84        84        38        87        83        59
  50 to under 75..............     88        88        44        89        88        39        78        73        63
  75 to under 90..............     83        80        56        88        87        52        55        40        74
  90 or greater...............     78        74        58        89        88        54        47        35        67

Establishment characteristics

Goods-producing industries....     86        86        33        86        86        33        -         -         -

Service-providing industries..     74        73        42        75        76        38        68        60        59
  Education and health
  services....................     72        65        57        82        80        52        57        43        64
    Educational services......     54        40        62        64        53        47        52        36        66
      Elementary and secondary
      schools.................     44        27        70        -         -         -         44        27        72
      Junior colleges,
      colleges, and
      universities............     79        69        49        80        72        56        78        67        46
    Health care and social
    assistance................     85        85        52        85        84        52        92        91        53
      Hospitals...............     89        90        63        -         -         -         93        94        47
  Public administration.......     87        88        53        -         -         -         87        88        53

1 to 99 workers...............     69        71        27        69        71        26        70        66        46
  1 to 49 workers.............     69        70        25        69        70        25        69        68        40
  50 to 99 workers............     71        72        31        71        73        30        71        63        55
100 workers or more...........     81        79        53        86        86        50        68        59        61
  100 to 499 workers..........     81        79        46        83        82        44        64        59        60
  500 workers or more.........     82        79        59        89        90        58        69        59        61

       Geographic areas

New England...................     75        72        47        78        75        42        56        50        80
Middle Atlantic...............     78        76        49        80        79        46        63        58        68
East North Central............     75        73        46        76        76        43        65        53        69
West North Central............     74        74        34        74        77        31        70        56        50
South Atlantic................     78        78        36        78        79        33        78        68        55
East South Central............     79        78        37        80        81        37        76        69        38
West South Central............     76        75        38        80        79        34        54        52        59
Mountain......................     73        72        37        75        75        35        59        56        53
Pacific.......................     75        75        38        74        77        34        76        67        58

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government. See Technical Note for further explanation.
  2 The percentile groupings are based on the average wage for each occupation surveyed, which may include workers both
above and below the threshold. The percentile values are based on the estimates published in the "National Compensation
Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007." See Technical Note for more details.

NOTE: Dash indicates no workers in this category or data did not meet publication criteria.



                                         Technical Note

     Data in this release are from the National Compensation Survey (NCS), conducted by the U.S.
Department of Laborís Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).  This release contains March 2008 data
on civilian, private industry, and State and local government workers in the United States.
Under the NCS program, information on the incidence and provision of benefits is published in
several stages.  This news release provides data on the incidence of (access to and participation
in) selected benefits and share of premiums paid by employers and employees for medical care.
An extensive number of web-only tables on the incidence of selected benefits will be available
in the late summer of 2008.  Data on detailed provisions of health insurance benefits in private
industry will be published in 2009.  Previous publications containing information on employee
benefits for private industry and State and local government workers are available on the
BLS website http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs.

Calculation details

     Averages for occupations within an establishment were used to produce estimates for worker
groups averaging hourly pay within the six earnings percentiles: Below the 10th percentile, 10th
to under the 25th percentile, 25th to under the 50th percentile, 50th to under the 75th
percentile, 75th to under the 90th percentile, and the 90th percentile and greater.  Individual
workers can fall into an earnings category different from the average for an occupation and
establishment into which they are classified.  The percentile breakouts are based on the average
wage for each occupation surveyed, which may include workers both above and below the threshold.
The percentile values are based on wages to be published in the upcoming "National Compensation
Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United States, 2007," U.S. Department of Labor, June
2008, bulletin 2704.  The tables on employer and employee medical premiums (tables 3 and 4)
include participants in all medical plans, with calculations for both single and family coverage.
The calculations are not based on actual decisions regarding medical coverage made by employees
within the occupations.  Rather, the premium calculations are based on the assumption that all
employees in the occupation have identical coverage.  Values corresponding to the percentiles
used in the tables are as follows:


Characteristics                                       Hourly wage percentiles
                                              10        25         50         75         90
                                                                (median)
Civilian workers                            $8.00     $10.57     $15.70     $24.47     $36.15
Private industry workers                    $7.85     $10.13     $15.00     $23.25     $34.79
State and local government workers         $11.00     $14.45     $20.68     $30.39     $41.66


Take-up rates

     Take-up rates are the percentage of workers with access to a plan who participate in the
plan. They are computed by using the number of workers participating in a plan divided by the
number of workers with access to the plan, times 100 and rounded to the nearest one percent. Since
the computation of take-up rates is based on the number of workers collected, rather the rounded
percentage estimates, the take-up rates in the tables may not equal the ratio of participation
to access estimates.

Leave benefits for teachers

     Primary, secondary, and special education teachers typically have a work schedule of 37 or 38
weeks per year.  Because of this work schedule, they are generally not offered vacation or holidays.
In many cases, the time off during winter and spring breaks during the school year is not considered
vacation days for the purposes of this survey.  However, many teachers are offered personal days
of leave that are captured in the survey.


Survey scope

     The March 2008 NCS benefits survey represented about 127 million civilian workers; of this
number, about 107 million were private industry workers and 19 million, State and local government
workers (see Appendix table 2).  For purposes of this study, a private establishment is an
economic unit that produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary
unit providing support services to a company.  For private industries, the establishment is
usually at a single physical location.  For State and local governments, an establishment is
defined as an agency or entity such as a school district, college, university, hospital, nursing
home, administrative body, court, police department, fire department, health or social service
operation, highway maintenance operation, urban transit operation, or other governmental unit.
It provides services under the authority of a specific State or local government organization
within a defined geographic area or jurisdiction.  The survey sample weights were adjusted to
reflect the March 2008 employment figures from the Current Employment Statistics survey.

     The nine census divisions are defined as follows: New England--Connecticut, Maine,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic--New Jersey, New York, and
Pennsylvania; East North Central--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North
Central--Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; South
Atlantic--Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central--Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and
Tennessee; West South Central--Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; Mountain--Arizona,
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific--Alaska, California,
Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

Sample design and data collection

     The sample for this survey was selected by using a 3-stage design. The first stage involved
the selection of areas.  The NCS State and local government sample consists of 152 areas that
represent the Nationís 361 metropolitan statistical areas and 573 micropolitan statistical areas,
as defined by the Office of Management and Budget in December 2003, and the remaining portions
of the 50 States.  The private industry sample consists of 151 metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan
areas that represent the Nationís 326 metropolitan statistical areas as defined by the Office of
Management and Budget (OMB) in 1994 and the remaining portions of the 50 states.  Nonmetropolitan
areas are counties and other geographic designations that do not fit the metropolitan area
definition.

     In the second stage, the sample of establishments was drawn by first stratifying the sampling
frame by industry and implicitly by establishment size.  The list of establishments from which the
survey sample was selected was developed from State unemployment insurance reports and is based on
the 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).

     The third stage of sample selection was the drawing of a probability sample of occupations
within a sampled establishment. Identification of the occupations for which data were to be
collected was a 4-step process:

     1. Probability-proportional-to-size selection of establishment jobs

     2. Classification of jobs into occupations based on the 2000 Standard Occupational
     Classification (SOC) system

     3. Characterization of jobs as full time vs. part time, union vs. nonunion, and time versus
     incentive

     4. Determination of the level of work of each job

For additional technical information, see the BLS Handbook of Methods, available online at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/home.htm.


Definition of terms

Civilian workers.  Private industry and State and local government workers.

Full-time worker.  Any employee whom the employer considers to be full time.

Part-time worker.  Any employee whom the employer considers to be part time.

Nonunion worker.  An employee in an occupation not meeting the conditions for union coverage.

Union worker.  Any employee is in a union occupation when all of the following conditions are met:

     * A labor organization is recognized as the bargaining agent for all workers in the occupation.
     * Wage and salary rates are determined through collective bargaining or negotiations.
     * Settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions,
     are embodied in a signed, mutually binding collective bargaining agreement

Survey estimation methods

     The survey design uses an estimator that assigns the inverse of each sample unitís probability
of selection as a weight to the unitís data at each stage of sample selection and four weight
adjustment factors. The first factor adjusts for establishment nonresponse and the second factor
adjusts for occupational nonresponse. The third factor adjusts for any special situations that may
have occurred during data collection. The fourth factor, poststratification, also called benchmarking,
is introduced to adjust the estimated employment totals to actual counts of employment by industry
for the survey reference date.

     For additional technical information, see the BLS Handbook of Methods, available online at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/home.htm.

Reliability of estimates

     The statistics in this summary are estimates derived from a sample of usable occupation quotes
selected from the responding establishments. They are not tabulations based on data from all
employees in establishments within the scope of the survey. Consequently, the data are subject
to sampling and nonsampling errors.

     Sampling errors are the differences that can arise between results derived from a sample and
those computed from observations of all units in the population being studied. The sample used for
this survey is one of a number of possible samples of the same size that could have been selected
using the sample design.  Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from one another.

     A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is the standard error. It can be
used to measure the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the
expected result of all possible samples.  The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate from
the survey differs from a complete population figure by less than the standard error. The chances
are about 90 out of 100 that this difference would be less than 1.6 times the standard error.
The statements of comparison appearing in this publication are significant at a 1.6 standard
error level or better.  This means that for differences cited, the estimated difference is greater
than 1.6 times the standard error of the difference.  Standard errors can be used to evaluate
published series.  To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of series, the standard errors
for all estimates are available on the BLS Web site http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs.

     Nonsampling errors also affect survey results. They can be attributed to many sources, such as
the inability to obtain information for some establishments, difficulties with survey definitions,
inability of the respondents to provide correct information; or mistakes in recording or coding
the data obtained. Although they were not specifically measured, the nonsampling errors were
expected to be minimal due to the extensive training of the field economists who gathered the
survey data, computer edits of the data, and detailed data review.


Survey response

     The March 2008 benefits survey included a sample of 14,890 establishments.  The definitions in
Appendix table 1 are as follows:

Responding.  The establishment provided information on at least one usable occupation.  An occupation
is classified as usable if the following data are present: occupational characteristics (full- vs.
part-time schedule, union vs. nonunion status, and time vs. incentive pay type), work schedule and
wage data.

Refused or unable provide data.  The establishment did not provide earnings, occupational
classification, worker characteristics, and work schedule data for any occupation.

Out of business or not in survey scope.  The establishment is no longer in operation, following a
bankruptcy, for example.  Establishments not in the survey scope include farm and private households,
the self-employed, the Federal government, and locations of an establishment out of the sampled
area.  Also excluded are establishments with no workers within the survey scope (if all employees
are also owners, for example).

Obtaining information

     For research articles on employee benefits, see the Monthly Labor Review or Compensation and
Working Conditions Online at the BLS Web sites http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/home.htm and
http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/home.htm.  For more detailed information on the NAICS and SOC
classification systems, including background information, see the BLS Web sites
http://www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm and http://www.bls.gov/soc/home.htm.

     Additional information about the NCS may be obtained by calling (202) 691-6199. You may also
write to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning,
2 Massachusetts Ave., NE, Room 4175, Washington, D.C. 20212-0001, or send e-mail to NCSinfo@bls.gov.
The data contained in this summary are also available on the BLS Internet site:
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs.  Users may access benefits data from previous surveys through a
variety of tools available on the same page.  Material in this summary is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission.  This information will be
made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request.  Voice telephone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.



Appendix table 1. Survey establishment response, National Compensation
Survey, March 2008


                                                  Private       State and
        Establishments              Total        industry         local
                                                               governments


Total in sampling frame(1)....   5,429,271      5,214,729        214,542

  Total in sample.............      14,890         12,872          2,018
    Responding................       8,615          6,837          1,778
    Refused or unable to
provide data..................       4,126          3,907            219
    Out of business or not in
survey scope..................       2,149          2,128             21

  1 The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected
(sampling frame) was developed from State unemployment insurance reports
and is based on the 2007 North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS). For private industries, an establishment is usually a single
physical location. For State and local governments, an establishment is
defined as all locations of a government entity.



Appendix table 2. Number of workers(1) represented, National Compensation
Survey, March 2008


                                                  Private       State and
    Occupational group(2)         Civilian       industry         local
                                   workers        workers      government
                                                                 workers


All workers...................  126,734,200    107,406,000     19,328,100
  Management, professional,
  and related.................   35,147,900     24,528,900     10,619,000
    Management, business, and
    financial.................    9,604,000      7,972,200          -
    Professional and related..   25,543,900     16,556,700      8,987,200
      Teachers................    6,312,600          -          4,893,700
        Primary, secondary,
        and special education
        school teachers.......    4,273,200          -          3,632,000
      Registered nurses.......    2,638,900          -            369,400
  Service.....................   26,586,700     22,459,300      4,127,400
    Protective service........        -              -          1,864,300
  Sales and office............   33,676,800     30,866,900      2,809,900
    Sales and related.........   12,652,600     12,507,100          -
    Office and administrative
    support...................   21,024,200     18,359,800      2,664,400
  Natural resources,
  construction, and
  maintenance.................   11,578,100     10,591,100        987,000
    Construction, extraction,
    farming, fishing, and
    forestry..................    6,302,500      5,747,200          -
    Installation, maintenance,
    and repair................    5,275,600      4,843,900          -
  Production, transportation,
  and material moving.........   19,744,600     18,959,900        784,700
    Production................    9,843,500      9,712,200          -
    Transportation and
    material moving...........    9,901,100      9,247,700          -

  1 The number of workers represented by the survey are rounded to the
nearest 100. Estimates of the number of workers provide a description of
the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison to other statistical
series to measure employment trends or levels.
  2 The 2000 Standard Occupational Classification system is used to
classify workers.

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet
publication criteria.


Last Modified Date: August 07, 2008