Persons with a Disability: Barriers to Employment and Other Labor-Related Issues News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, April 24, 2013             USDL-13-0729

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


     PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: BARRIERS TO EMPLOYMENT, TYPES OF 
        ASSISTANCE, AND OTHER LABOR-RELATED ISSUES -- MAY 2012


In May 2012, half of all persons with a disability who were not working 
reported some type of barrier to employment, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Lack of education or training, lack of 
transportation, the need for special features at the job, and a person's 
own disability were among the barriers reported. Among persons with a 
disability who were employed, over half had some difficulty completing their 
work duties because of their disability.

These findings were obtained from a supplement to the May 2012 Current 
Population Survey (CPS). The supplement was sponsored by the U.S. Department 
of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy. The CPS is a monthly 
survey of about 60,000 households that obtains information on national 
employment and unemployment for the civilian noninstitutional population 
age 16 and over, including information on persons with a disability. The May 
2012 supplement collected information about barriers to employment, prior 
work experience, career and financial assistance, requested changes to the 
workplace, and related topics for persons with a disability. For more 
information, see the Technical Note.

Selected Characteristics of Persons with a Disability

In May 2012, about 28.3 million men and women in the civilian noninstitutional 
population age 16 and over had a disability. Persons with a disability tend 
to be older than those with no disability, reflecting the increased 
incidence of disability with age. In May 2012, 45.4 percent of persons with 
a disability were age 65 and over, compared with 13.4 percent of those with 
no disability. Women were somewhat more likely to have a disability than 
men, partly reflecting the greater life expectancy of women. In terms of 
educational attainment, 15.1 percent of persons age 25 and over with a 
disability had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared with 33.4 percent 
for persons with no disability. (See table 1.)

About 18.2 percent of persons with a disability were employed in May 2012, 
well below the employment-population ratio of 64.3 percent for persons 
with no disability. In part, this reflects the older age profile of the 
group of persons with a disability. However, the employment-population 
ratio was much lower among persons with a disability for all age groups.

Barriers to Employment

Half of those with a disability who were not employed in May 2012 (that 
is, persons who were either unemployed or not in the labor force) reported 
at least one barrier to employment. When asked to identify barriers they 
had encountered, most reported that their own disability was a barrier 
to employment (80.5 percent). Other barriers cited included lack of 
education or training (14.1 percent), lack of transportation (11.7 
percent), and the need for special features at the job (10.3 percent). 
(See tables 2 and 3.)

A greater proportion of persons ages 16 to 64 reported a barrier to
employment than those age 65 and over (70.8 percent and 29.8 percent,
respectively), perhaps reflecting the fact that older workers are, in
general, less likely to participate in the labor force. Among persons
with a disability age 25 and over, 38.6 percent of persons with a college 
degree who were not employed reported a barrier to employment, compared 
with 52.9 percent of those with less than a high school diploma.

Prior Work Experience

Among persons with a disability who were not in the labor force in May
2012 (that is, neither employed nor unemployed), 87.7 percent had
worked before. This proportion was essentially the same for both men
and women. A person's disability status was established at the time of
the survey; their previous work experience may have occurred at a time
when they did not have a disability. (See table 4.)

The proportion of persons with a disability who were not in the labor
force but had prior work experience increased with age. For example,
21.1 percent of 16- to 24-year-olds had worked before, compared with
96.9 percent of those age 65 and over.

Individuals with a disability who had higher levels of educational
attainment were more likely to have had work experience. About 96.9
percent of those age 25 and over with a college degree had worked
before, compared with 84.7 percent of those with less than a high
school diploma.

Career Assistance Programs

In May 2012, 7.4 percent of persons with a disability reported using
some type of career assistance program within the past 5 years to help
them prepare for work or advance on the job. Career assistance
programs include Vocational Rehabilitation Centers, One-Stop Career
Centers, and similar programs. (See table 5.)

Persons with a disability who were unemployed (that is, actively
looking for work) at the time of the survey were more likely than
those who were employed or not in the labor force to have used some
type of career assistance. About 26.7 percent of persons with a
disability who were looking for work in May 2012 reported using a
career assistance program, compared with 11.1 percent of employed
persons with a disability and 5.9 percent of those not in the labor
force.

Persons with a disability ages 16 to 64 were more likely to have used
a career assistance program than those age 65 and over (12.0 percent
and 2.0 percent, respectively).

Financial Assistance Programs

About 58.4 percent of persons with a disability received financial
assistance within the past year from one or more of the following
sources: Workers Compensation, Social Security Disability Income,
Supplemental Security Income, Veterans Disability compensation,
disability insurance payments, Medicaid, Medicare, and other payments
or programs. (See table 6.)

Among persons with a disability, those who were employed were least likely 
to have received some type of financial assistance within the past year 
(23.9 percent). About 39.8 percent of persons with a disability who were 
unemployed received assistance from at least one of the financial assistance
programs listed above, compared with 67.0 percent for those not in the labor 
force. (Differences in use of financial assistance among those with a 
disability reflect a variety of factors such as age, work history, or 
program eligibility requirements.)

Some financial assistance programs include work limitations in order to 
establish or maintain program eligibility. The large majority (92.5 percent) 
of those who received financial assistance within the past year reported 
that the program(s) they used did not cause them to work less than they 
otherwise would have.

Difficulty Completing Work Duties

In May 2012, just over half of employed persons with a disability reported 
that their disability caused difficulty in completing their current 
work duties. About 27.8 percent reported a little difficulty in completing 
work duties, 21.1 percent reported moderate difficulty, and 7.0 percent 
reported severe difficulty. About 44.1 percent of employed persons with a 
disability had no difficulty completing their current work duties. (See 
table 7.)

Among employed persons with a disability, those age 65 and over were less 
likely to report that they had some difficulty completing their work duties 
than were those ages 16 to 64--46.8 percent versus 57.6 percent. Men and 
women were about equally likely to report difficulty completing work duties 
due to their disability.

Requesting Changes in the Workplace

Employed persons with a disability were more likely to have requested a 
change in their current workplace to do their job better than were those 
with no disability (12.5 percent and 8.4 percent, respectively). Such 
changes included new or modified equipment; physical changes to the 
workplace; policy changes to the workplace; changes in work tasks, job 
structure, or schedule; changes in communication or information sharing; 
changes to comply with religious beliefs; accommodations for family or 
personal obligations; training; or other changes. Among workers with a 
disability, 14.1 percent of those ages 16 to 64 had requested a change in 
their current work place, compared with 3.6 percent of those age 65 and 
over. (See table 8.)

Regardless of disability status, requests for changes to work tasks, job 
structure, or schedule were most common, followed by requests for new or 
modified equipment. (See table 9.)

Persons with a disability who asked for a change in their current workplace 
were more likely to have requested physical changes to the workplace than 
were those with no disability. In contrast, training, policy changes, or 
changes in communication or information sharing were more commonly 
requested by employed persons with no disability.

Commute

About 74.6 percent of persons with a disability used their own vehicle
for their commute to work. Other commuting methods used much less
often by persons with a disability included riding in a friend or
family member's car, taking a bus, walking, and taking the train or
subway. Commuting methods among persons with no disability followed a
very similar pattern. (See table 10.)

Work at Home

In May 2012, about 24.5 percent of employed persons with a disability did 
some work at home as part of their job, compared with 20.2 percent of those 
with no disability. Older workers (age 65 and over) with a disability were 
more likely to work at home than those ages 16 to 64, while men and women 
with a disability were equally likely to work at home. (See table 11.)

Persons with a disability who had higher educational attainment were more 
likely to work at home. For example, among persons with a disability age 25 
and over, college graduates were more than 3 times as likely to work at 
home than those without a high school diploma (48.9 percent and 14.8 percent, 
respectively).

Flexible Work Hours

Employed persons with a disability were more likely than those with no
disability to have flexible work schedules in May 2012 (42.2 percent and 
35.0 percent, respectively). These workers reported that they had flexible 
work hours that allowed them to vary the time they began or ended work. 
(See table 12.)

Over half (57.3 percent) of workers with a disability age 65 and over had 
flexible work schedules, compared with 39.4 percent of those between 16 and 
64 years of age. Men and women with disabilities were about equally likely 
to have flexible work hours.

Regardless of disability status, the likelihood of having a flexible work 
schedule was higher for college graduates than for persons with less 
education.

Temporary Jobs

In May 2012, about 5.8 percent of employed persons with a disability held 
jobs that were temporary, compared with 4.4 percent of those with no 
disability. These workers expected their job to last only for a limited 
time or until the completion of a project. (See table 13.)

For both persons with and without a disability, the likelihood of holding 
a temporary job was highest among persons who had not completed high school.




Technical Note


   The data in this release were collected through a supplement to the 
May 2012 Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted 
by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is 
a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides 
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other 
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population 
age 16 and over. The May 2012 supplement was designed to gather data 
in several specific areas related to the employment situation of 
persons with disabilities. The collection of these data was sponsored 
by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment 
Policy.
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200, 
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.


Definitions and concepts from the monthly CPS

Disability status. The monthly CPS uses a set of six questions to
identify persons with disabilities. In the CPS, persons are classified
as having a disability if there is a response of "yes" to any of these
questions. Persons who respond "no" to all of these questions are
classified as having no disability. The disability questions are as
follows.

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental,
   or emotional conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily
   activities. Please answer for household members who are 15 years old
   or over.
   
     --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty hearing?
   
     --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty seeing
       even when wearing glasses?
   
     --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone
       have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making
       decisions?
   
     --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
   
     --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?
   
     --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone
       have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's
       office or shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are
only asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the
questions ask the respondent whether anyone in the household has the
condition described, and if the respondent replies "yes," they are
then asked to identify everyone in the household who has the condition.
Labor force measures from the CPS are tabulated for persons age 16 and
older. More information on the disability questions and the merits and
limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the BLS Web site
at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Labor force status. Employed persons are all those who, during the 
survey reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; 
(b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; 
or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family memberís 
business. Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because 
of illness, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also are counted 
as employed.
   Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the reference 
week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts 
to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from 
which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be 
classified as unemployed.
   Civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as employed
or unemployed.
   Unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed persons as a
percent of the civilian labor force.
   Not in the labor force includes all persons who are not classified
as employed or unemployed.
   Not employed includes persons who were unemployed or not in the
labor force.

   Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is
available on the Internet at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.


Selected questions and concepts from the May 2012 supplement

Barriers to employment. This information was obtained from responses to a 
question asked of persons with a disability who were not employed (that is, 
either unemployed or not in the labor force). Respondents were classified
as having a barrier to employment if they answered "yes" to one or more of
the response options in the following question.

   The purpose of this next question is to identify barriers to employment
   faced by persons with difficulties. Do you consider any of the following 
   a barrier to employment for you?
     1. Lack of education or training
     2. Lack of job counseling
     3. Lack of transportation
     4. Loss of government assistance
     5. Need for special features at the job
     6. Employer or coworker attitudes
     7. Your difficulty (hearing/seeing/concentrating, remembering, or
        making decisions/walking or climbing stairs/dressing or bathing/doing
        errands alone)
     8. Other


Prior work experience. This information was obtained from answers to the 
following question, which was asked of persons with a disability who were 
not employed and had not already reported working before.

   Have you ever worked for pay at a job or business?
     1. Yes
     2. No


Career assistance. Persons with a disability were asked the following
question to determine whether they had received certain types of career
assistance. Individuals could give multiple responses.

   The purpose of this next question is to find out if you have taken
   advantage of any of the following sources that help people prepare for 
   work or advance on the job. In the past 5 years, have you received 
   assistance from:
     1. Vocational Rehabilitation Centers
     2. One-Stop Career Centers
     3. Ticket to Work program
     4. Assistive Technology Act program
     5. Center for Independent Living for individuals with disabilities
     6. Client Assistance Program
     7. Any other employment assistance program


Financial assistance. This information was obtained from responses to two 
questions. All persons were asked the following question and could give 
multiple responses.

   There are a variety of programs designed to provide financial assistance 
   to people. In the past year did you receive assistance from any of the 
   following programs?
     1. Workers' Compensation
     2. Social Security Disability Income
     3. Supplemental Security Income
     4. Veterans Disability Compensation
     5. Disability insurance payments
     6. Other disability payments
     7. Medicaid
     8. Medicare
     9. Other program

   The following question was asked only of persons who indicated in the above
question that they received assistance from one or more programs.

   Some financial assistance programs include limitations on the amount of 
   work you can do. Did this program cause you to work less than you would 
   otherwise?
     1. Yes
     2. No

 
Level of disability-related difficulty in completing work duties.  This 
information was obtained from answers to the following question, which was 
asked of employed persons with a disability. 

   Previously, you mentioned that you had difficulty (hearing/seeing/
   concentrating, remembering, or making decisions/walking or climbing stairs/
   dressing or bathing/doing errands alone). How has this difficulty affected 
   your ability to complete current work duties? Would you say this has caused 
   no difficulty, a little difficulty, moderate difficulty, or severe difficulty?
     1. No difficulty
     2. A little difficulty
     3. Moderate difficulty
     4. Severe difficulty


Requested changes at the current workplace. This information was obtained
from answers to two questions. The first, asked of all employed persons, was
as follows.

   Have you ever requested any change in your current workplace to help you
   do your job better?  For example, changes in work policies, equipment, or
   schedules.
     1. Yes
     2. No

   The following question was asked only of persons who responded "yes" to the
above question. Individuals could identify multiple changes.

   What changes did you request?
     1. New or modified equipment
     2. Physical changes to the workplace
     3. Policy changes to the workplace
     4. Changes in work tasks, job structure, or schedule
     5. Changes in communication or information sharing
     6. Changes to comply with religious beliefs
     7. Accommodations for family or personal obligations
     8. Training
     9. Other changes


Typical commute to work. This information was obtained from responses
to the following question, which was asked of all employed persons. 
Individuals could identify multiple commuting methods.

   How do you typically commute to work?
     1.  Bus
     2.  Specialized bus or van service for people with disabilities
     3.  Train/subway
     4.  Taxi
     5.  Own vehicle
     6.  Passenger in a friend or family member's car
     7.  Carpool
     8.  Bicycle
     9.  Walk
     10. Other
     11. Work from home


Work at home. This information was obtained from two questions. First,
persons who answered "work from home" to the question regarding their
typical commute to work were included among those who work at home. In
addition, the following question was asked of all remaining employed
persons.

   Do you do any work at home for your job or business?
     1. Yes
     2. No


Flexible work hours. All employed persons were asked the following
question to determine whether they have flexible work hours at their
current job.

   Do you have flexible work hours that allow you to vary or make changes
   in the time you begin and end work?
     1. Yes
     2. No


Temporary jobs. All employed persons were asked the following question
to determine if their jobs were temporary.

   Some people are in temporary jobs that last only for a limited time or
   until the completion of a project. Is your job temporary?
     1. Yes
     2. No


Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there
is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population
values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because
samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will
differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.
   The monthly CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment
of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in
the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct
information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.
   Additional information on the reliability of data from the CPS and estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

242,966 156,024 64.2 143,144 58.9 12,881 8.3 86,941

Men

117,177 82,977 70.8 75,931 64.8 7,046 8.5 34,200

Women

125,788 73,048 58.1 67,212 53.4 5,835 8.0 52,741

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

28,308 5,919 20.9 5,162 18.2 758 12.8 22,389

Men

12,790 3,184 24.9 2,775 21.7 409 12.9 9,606

Women

15,518 2,735 17.6 2,387 15.4 348 12.7 12,783

Age

16 to 64 years

15,445 5,030 32.6 4,350 28.2 680 13.5 10,415

16 to 24 years

1,429 467 32.7 333 23.3 135 28.8 962

25 to 34 years

1,670 715 42.8 599 35.9 116 16.2 955

35 to 44 years

2,117 816 38.5 682 32.2 133 16.3 1,301

45 to 54 years

4,246 1,347 31.7 1,202 28.3 145 10.8 2,898

55 to 64 years

5,984 1,685 28.2 1,533 25.6 151 9.0 4,299

65 years and over

12,863 889 6.9 812 6.3 77 8.7 11,974

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

26,879 5,452 20.3 4,829 18.0 623 11.4 21,427

Less than a high school diploma

6,411 674 10.5 576 9.0 98 14.5 5,737

High school graduates, no college(1)

9,659 1,793 18.6 1,564 16.2 229 12.8 7,866

Some college or associate degree

6,742 1,756 26.1 1,547 22.9 209 11.9 4,986

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

4,068 1,229 30.2 1,142 28.1 87 7.1 2,838

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

214,657 150,105 69.9 137,982 64.3 12,123 8.1 64,552

Men

104,387 79,793 76.4 73,156 70.1 6,636 8.3 24,595

Women

110,270 70,313 63.8 64,826 58.8 5,487 7.8 39,957

Age

16 to 64 years

185,902 143,610 77.3 131,930 71.0 11,679 8.1 42,292

16 to 24 years

37,355 20,904 56.0 17,393 46.6 3,511 16.8 16,451

25 to 34 years

39,241 33,042 84.2 30,367 77.4 2,675 8.1 6,198

35 to 44 years

37,528 32,208 85.8 30,175 80.4 2,033 6.3 5,319

45 to 54 years

39,547 34,294 86.7 32,225 81.5 2,068 6.0 5,254

55 to 64 years

32,232 23,162 71.9 21,769 67.5 1,392 6.0 9,070

65 years and over

28,755 6,495 22.6 6,052 21.0 444 6.8 22,260

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

177,302 129,201 72.9 120,588 68.0 8,613 6.7 48,101

Less than a high school diploma

19,377 11,119 57.4 9,693 50.0 1,425 12.8 8,258

High school graduates, no college(1)

51,365 35,033 68.2 32,243 62.8 2,790 8.0 16,332

Some college or associate degree

47,407 35,513 74.9 32,851 69.3 2,663 7.5 11,893

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

59,154 47,536 80.4 45,801 77.4 1,735 3.6 11,617

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: These estimates, which come from a special supplemental survey, may differ slightly from previously published estimates for May 2012 that come from the regular monthly labor force survey.


Table 2. Persons with a disability who were not employed by age, sex, educational attainment, prior work experience, and barrier to employment, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not employed(1) Percent distribution
Total Barrier No barrier Total Barrier No barrier

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

23,147 11,451 11,296 100.0 49.5 48.8

16 to 64 years

11,095 7,860 3,000 100.0 70.8 27.0

65 years and over

12,051 3,591 8,296 100.0 29.8 68.8

Men

10,015 5,127 4,723 100.0 51.2 47.2

Women

13,131 6,324 6,573 100.0 48.2 50.1

Total, 25 years and over

22,050 10,731 10,928 100.0 48.7 49.6

Less than a high school diploma

5,835 3,086 2,648 100.0 52.9 45.4

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,094 3,803 4,144 100.0 47.0 51.2

Some college or associate degree

5,195 2,712 2,382 100.0 52.2 45.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

2,926 1,130 1,754 100.0 38.6 59.9

Never worked(4)

2,820 1,782 986 100.0 63.2 35.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons who are not employed include both the unemployed and those not in the labor force (neither working nor looking for work). Employed persons were not asked about barriers to employment.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
(4) This estimate represents all persons with a disability who have never worked. It includes both unemployed persons and persons not in the labor force.

NOTE: Persons with a disability were able to report more than one barrier to employment. Data may not sum to total because some persons did not respond to the question identifying barriers to employment. Barriers to employment include: lack of education or training, lack of job counseling, lack of transportation, loss of government assistance, need for special features at the job, employer or coworker attitudes, own disability, and other.


Table 3. Persons with a disability who were not employed by age, sex, educational attainment, prior work experience, and type of barrier to employment, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total not
employed(1)
with a
barrier to
employment
Percent of total by type of barrier
Lack of
education
or training
Lack of job
counseling
Lack of
transpor-tation
Loss of
government assistance
Need for
special
features at
the job
Employer
or
coworker
attitudes
Own
disability
Other

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

11,451 14.1 5.7 11.7 4.2 10.3 7.9 80.5 18.0

16 to 64 years

7,860 16.5 7.0 14.3 5.0 12.3 9.7 83.5 15.1

65 years and over

3,591 8.6 2.6 5.9 2.6 5.9 4.1 74.1 24.4

Men

5,127 14.6 6.7 11.5 4.3 9.9 7.7 81.9 16.7

Women

6,324 13.6 4.8 11.8 4.2 10.7 8.1 79.5 19.1

Total, 25 years and over

10,731 12.9 5.2 10.4 4.3 9.9 7.5 80.8 18.2

Less than a high school diploma

3,086 23.5 7.4 11.9 4.9 9.2 6.2 80.4 19.1

High school graduates, no college(2)

3,803 9.0 4.1 9.0 3.1 8.3 6.4 81.9 17.5

Some college or associate degree

2,712 10.3 5.3 11.3 5.8 12.5 10.5 80.4 16.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

1,130 3.3 2.5 8.8 2.6 11.0 7.7 79.5 21.6

Never worked(4)

1,782 19.2 8.0 14.1 3.2 8.0 4.9 75.5 20.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons who are not employed include both the unemployed and those not in the labor force (neither working nor looking for work). Employed persons were not asked about barriers to employment.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
(4) This estimate represents all persons with a disability who have never worked. It includes both unemployed persons and persons not in the labor force.

NOTE: Percents may sum to more than 100 percent because persons with a disability were able to report more than one barrier to employment.


Table 4. Persons with a disability who were not in the labor force by sex, age, educational attainment, and prior work experience, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not in the labor force Percent distribution
Total Previously
worked
Never
worked(1)
Total Previously
worked
Never
worked(1)

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

22,389 19,631 2,758 100.0 87.7 12.3

Men

9,606 8,390 1,216 100.0 87.3 12.7

Women

12,783 11,241 1,542 100.0 87.9 12.1

Age

16 to 64 years

10,415 8,029 2,387 100.0 77.1 22.9

16 to 24 years

962 203 759 100.0 21.1 78.9

25 to 34 years

955 612 342 100.0 64.1 35.9

35 to 44 years

1,301 1,034 267 100.0 79.5 20.5

45 to 54 years

2,898 2,364 534 100.0 81.6 18.4

55 to 64 years

4,299 3,816 484 100.0 88.8 11.2

65 years and over

11,974 11,602 371 100.0 96.9 3.1

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

21,427 19,428 1,999 100.0 90.7 9.3

Less than a high school diploma

5,737 4,862 875 100.0 84.7 15.3

High school graduates, no college(2)

7,866 7,112 754 100.0 90.4 9.6

Some college or associate degree

4,986 4,703 283 100.0 94.3 5.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

2,838 2,751 87 100.0 96.9 3.1

Footnotes
(1) This estimate does not represent all persons with a disability who have never worked. It excludes a small number of unemployed persons who have never worked before.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.


Table 5. Persons with a disability who received career assistance in the past 5 years by current employment status, prior work experience, and age, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Persons
with a
disability
Received career assistance(1)
Number Percent of
persons
with a
disability

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

28,308 2,104 7.4

Employed

5,162 575 11.1

Unemployed

758 202 26.7

Not in the labor force

22,389 1,327 5.9

Previously worked

19,631 1,145 5.8

Never worked(2)

2,758 182 6.6

Total, 16 to 64 years

15,445 1,852 12.0

Employed

4,350 544 12.5

Unemployed

680 193 28.4

Not in the labor force

10,415 1,115 10.7

Previously worked

8,029 935 11.7

Never worked(2)

2,387 180 7.5

Total, 65 years and over

12,863 252 2.0

Employed

812 32 3.9

Unemployed

77 9 11.8

Not in the labor force

11,974 212 1.8

Previously worked

11,602 210 1.8

Never worked(2)

371 2 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Career assistance programs include: Vocational Rehabilitation Centers, One-Stop Career Centers, Ticket to Work program, Assistive Technology Act program, Center for Independent Living for individuals with disabilities, Client Assistance Program, and other.
(2) This estimate does not represent all persons with a disability who have never worked. It excludes a small number of unemployed persons who have never worked before.


Table 6. Persons with a disability who used a financial assistance program in the past year by age, employment status, usual full- or part-time status, and program limitation on work, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total Persons who used a financial assistance program
Total Percent of
total
Percent of persons who used a
financial assistance program
Total Worked
less
because
of
program(1)
Did not
work less
because
of
program(1)

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

28,308 16,537 58.4 100.0 6.2 92.5

16 to 64 years

15,445 8,306 53.8 100.0 10.2 88.0

65 years and over

12,863 8,232 64.0 100.0 2.2 97.0

Employed

5,162 1,235 23.9 100.0 11.9 87.8

Usually work full time

3,397 506 14.9 100.0 9.4 90.6

Usually work part time

1,765 730 41.3 100.0 13.7 85.8

Unemployed

758 302 39.8 100.0 11.5 87.3

Not in the labor force

22,389 15,000 67.0 100.0 5.6 93.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with a disability were able to report more than one financial assistance program, and the report of a limitation could refer to any of the assistance programs used. Data may not sum to total because some persons did not respond to the question on work limitation.

NOTE: Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours. Financial assistance programs include: Workers' Compensation, Social Security Disability Income, Supplemental Security Income, Veterans Disability Compensation, disability insurance payments, Medicaid, Medicare, and other payments or programs.


Table 7. Employed persons with a disability by age, sex, and level of disability-related difficulty in completing current work duties, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Percent of total employed by level of difficulty
Total No difficulty A little
difficulty
Moderate
difficulty
Severe
difficulty

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,162 100.0 44.1 27.8 21.1 7.0

16 to 64 years

4,350 100.0 42.4 28.2 22.2 7.2

65 years and over

812 100.0 53.2 26.0 14.9 5.9

Men

2,775 100.0 45.6 27.5 19.3 7.6

Women

2,387 100.0 42.4 28.2 23.1 6.3

Table 8. Employed persons who requested a change in their current workplace to help them do their job better by age, sex, and disability status, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Requested a change in current workplace
Total Percent
of total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

143,144 12,300 8.6

16 to 64 years

136,280 11,889 8.7

65 years and over

6,863 411 6.0

Men

75,931 6,054 8.0

Women

67,212 6,247 9.3

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,162 643 12.5

16 to 64 years

4,350 614 14.1

65 years and over

812 29 3.6

Men

2,775 294 10.6

Women

2,387 349 14.6

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

137,982 11,658 8.4

16 to 64 years

131,930 11,275 8.5

65 years and over

6,052 382 6.3

Men

73,156 5,760 7.9

Women

64,826 5,898 9.1

Table 9. Employed persons who requested a change in their current workplace to help them do their job better by age, sex, disability status, and type of change requested, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total who
requested a
change in
current
workplace
Percent of total by type of change requested
New or
modified
equipment
Physical
changes
to the
workplace
Policy
changes
to the
workplace
Work
tasks, job
structure, or
schedule
Changes in
communi-
cation or
information
sharing
Changes to
comply with
religious
beliefs
Accommo-
dations for
family or
personal
obligations
Training Other

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

12,300 36.4 13.6 22.8 46.7 16.0 1.3 12.4 13.6 10.8

16 to 64 years

11,889 36.2 13.5 22.8 46.9 16.0 1.3 12.5 13.7 10.6

65 years and over

411 41.7 16.2 22.8 40.0 15.0 0.8 7.2 9.3 15.3

Men

6,054 43.1 15.2 24.9 43.9 17.6 1.7 11.3 14.5 10.6

Women

6,247 29.9 12.1 20.8 49.5 14.5 1.0 13.4 12.7 11.0

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

643 33.0 21.4 13.0 44.9 8.9 0.9 6.5 6.6 14.3

16 to 64 years

614 32.9 21.8 13.6 45.4 8.8 0.9 6.8 6.9 13.6

65 years and over

29 - - - - - - - - -

Men

294 40.7 26.7 18.9 39.7 9.4 1.7 5.3 5.2 12.6

Women

349 26.5 16.9 8.1 49.3 8.5 0.2 7.4 7.7 15.7

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

11,658 36.6 13.2 23.3 46.8 16.4 1.4 12.7 14.0 10.6

16 to 64 years

11,275 36.4 13.1 23.3 47.0 16.4 1.4 12.9 14.1 10.4

65 years and over

382 42.2 16.5 24.6 40.5 15.2 0.9 7.8 10.1 14.3

Men

5,760 43.2 14.6 25.2 44.1 18.0 1.7 11.6 15.0 10.5

Women

5,898 30.1 11.8 21.5 49.5 14.8 1.0 13.8 13.0 10.7

NOTE: Percents may sum to more than 100 percent because employed persons may have requested more than one change. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


Table 10. Employed persons by typical commute to work and disability status, May 2012
[Percent distribution]
Characteristic Total Persons with a
disability
Persons with
no disability

Total employed (in thousands)

143,144 5,162 137,982

Percent of employed persons by commute method

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0

Bus

2.7 4.2 2.6

Specialized bus or van service for people with disabilities

0.2 2.0 0.1

Train/subway

2.5 1.5 2.5

Taxi

0.2 0.4 0.2

Own vehicle

83.3 74.6 83.6

Passenger in a friend or family member's car

2.9 4.8 2.8

Carpool

1.5 1.3 1.5

Bicycle

0.7 0.9 0.7

Walk

2.6 4.1 2.5

Other

1.8 2.3 1.8

Work from home

3.9 6.2 3.8

NOTE: The percent using each commuting method may sum to more than 100 percent because employed persons may have reported more than one method.


Table 11. Employed persons who worked at home by age, sex, educational attainment, and disability status, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Worked at home
Number Percent of
total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

143,144 29,135 20.4

16 to 64 years

136,280 26,868 19.7

65 years and over

6,863 2,267 33.0

Men

75,931 15,504 20.4

Women

67,212 13,631 20.3

Total, 25 years and over

125,418 28,292 22.6

Less than a high school diploma

10,269 702 6.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

33,807 3,610 10.7

Some college or associate degree

34,398 6,087 17.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

46,943 17,892 38.1

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,162 1,265 24.5

16 to 64 years

4,350 943 21.7

65 years and over

812 322 39.7

Men

2,775 699 25.2

Women

2,387 566 23.7

Total, 25 years and over

4,829 1,239 25.7

Less than a high school diploma

576 85 14.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

1,564 211 13.5

Some college or associate degree

1,547 385 24.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,142 559 48.9

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

137,982 27,870 20.2

16 to 64 years

131,930 25,925 19.7

65 years and over

6,052 1,945 32.1

Men

73,156 14,806 20.2

Women

64,826 13,065 20.2

Total, 25 years and over

120,588 27,053 22.4

Less than a high school diploma

9,693 617 6.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

32,243 3,400 10.5

Some college or associate degree

32,851 5,703 17.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

45,801 17,333 37.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Persons who worked at home include those who responded that they work at home when asked about their typical commute and those who responded yes when asked if they do any work at home for their job or business.


Table 12. Employed persons with flexible work hours by age, sex, educational attainment, and disability status, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Flexible work hours
Number Percent of
total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

143,144 50,486 35.3

16 to 64 years

136,280 46,950 34.5

65 years and over

6,863 3,536 51.5

Men

75,931 27,613 36.4

Women

67,212 22,873 34.0

Total, 25 years and over

125,418 45,317 36.1

Less than a high school diploma

10,269 2,546 24.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

33,807 9,750 28.8

Some college or associate degree

34,398 11,857 34.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

46,943 21,164 45.1

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,162 2,181 42.2

16 to 64 years

4,350 1,716 39.4

65 years and over

812 465 57.3

Men

2,775 1,185 42.7

Women

2,387 995 41.7

Total, 25 years and over

4,829 2,089 43.3

Less than a high school diploma

576 229 39.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

1,564 572 36.6

Some college or associate degree

1,547 689 44.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,142 600 52.6

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

137,982 48,306 35.0

16 to 64 years

131,930 45,235 34.3

65 years and over

6,052 3,071 50.7

Men

73,156 26,428 36.1

Women

64,826 21,878 33.7

Total, 25 years and over

120,588 43,227 35.8

Less than a high school diploma

9,693 2,317 23.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

32,243 9,178 28.5

Some college or associate degree

32,851 11,168 34.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

45,801 20,564 44.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Flexible work hours allow employed persons to vary or make changes in the time they begin and end work.


Table 13. Employed persons with temporary jobs by age, sex, educational attainment, and disability status, May 2012
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Total
employed
Temporary job
Number Percent of
total
employed

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

143,144 6,312 4.4

16 to 64 years

136,280 5,948 4.4

65 years and over

6,863 365 5.3

Men

75,931 3,405 4.5

Women

67,212 2,908 4.3

Total, 25 years and over

125,418 4,549 3.6

Less than a high school diploma

10,269 742 7.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

33,807 1,063 3.1

Some college or associate degree

34,398 997 2.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

46,943 1,747 3.7

Persons with a disability

Total, 16 years and over

5,162 297 5.8

16 to 64 years

4,350 250 5.7

65 years and over

812 47 5.8

Men

2,775 164 5.9

Women

2,387 133 5.6

Total, 25 years and over

4,829 256 5.3

Less than a high school diploma

576 55 9.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

1,564 75 4.8

Some college or associate degree

1,547 66 4.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,142 60 5.3

Persons with no disability

Total, 16 years and over

137,982 6,015 4.4

16 to 64 years

131,930 5,698 4.3

65 years and over

6,052 317 5.2

Men

73,156 3,241 4.4

Women

64,826 2,775 4.3

Total, 25 years and over

120,588 4,293 3.6

Less than a high school diploma

9,693 687 7.1

High school graduates, no college(1)

32,243 988 3.1

Some college or associate degree

32,851 931 2.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

45,801 1,687 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: A temporary job is one that lasts only for a limited time or until the completion of a project.


Last Modified Date: April 24, 2013