Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release: 10:00 A.M. EST                                      USDL 09-1403
Thursday, November 19, 2009

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FIRST QUARTER 2009          

From December 2008 to March 2009 the number of job losses from 
closing and contracting establishments remained essentially unchanged 
at 8.5 million. The number of job gains from opening and expanding 
private sector establishments fell from 6.7 million to 5.7 million, 
the lowest level since the series began in 1992, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today.  (See tables A, 1, and 3.)  

Gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in all but two industry 
sectors: utilities and education and health services.  (See table 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in 
the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross job 
losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing units 
and the loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between the 
number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the 
net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more 
information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at 
the establishment level by major industry sector and for the 50 
states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin 
Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm 
level by employer size class.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 
|       Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data          |
| Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED      |
| series.  Annual revisions are published each year with the release| 
| of first quarter data.  These revisions cover the last four       |
| quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and 5 years of seasonally| 
| adjusted data.                                                    |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
Contracting establishments lost 7.0 million jobs, in the first 
quarter of 2009, an increase of 7,000 jobs compared to the previous 
quarter. 

Expanding establishments gained 4.6 million jobs, a sharp decrease 
from the previous quarter when expanding establishments gained 5.4 
million jobs.

Closing establishments lost 1.4 million jobs, a decrease of 60,000 
jobs compared to the previous quarter. 

Opening establishments gained 1.1 million jobs, a decrease from the 
previous quarter when opening establishments gained 1.4 million jobs 
(See tables 1 and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number 
of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -2,740,000 jobs in the 
private sector for first quarter 2009. This is the largest quarterly 
net loss since the series began in 1992. 

Gross job gains represented 5.2 percent of private sector employment, 
while gross job losses represented 7.7 percent of private sector 
employment.  (See table 2.)

Establishment births, a subset of the openings data (see the 
Technical Note for more information), gained 697,000 jobs at 171,000 
establishments in first quarter 2009, the lowest level of gains since 
the series began in June 1993.  Data for establishment deaths, a 
subset of the closings data, are now available for June 2008, when 
936,000 jobs were lost at 227,000 establishments.  (See table 7.)

From December 2008 to March 2009, gross job losses exceeded gross job 
gains in all but two industry sectors: utilities and education and 
health services.  (See table 3.)  Gross job gains in the education 
and health services sector decreased to 731,000 jobs in the first 
quarter, while gross job losses increased to 723,000.  This industry 
sector is the only one which has experienced a net positive change in 
every quarter since this series began in 1992.

From December 2008 to March 2009, the share of gross job gains 
accounted for by firms with 1 to 4 employees rose from 17.1 to 18.2 
percent.  Firms with 1,000 or more employees experienced a decrease 
in the share of gross job gains from 17.8 to 13.7 percent.  (See 
table 4.)

In the first quarter of 2009, the rate of gross job gains increased 
slightly in the District of Columbia (5.8 percent). Levels of gross 
job gains fell in 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. 
Levels of gross job losses increased in 20 states, Puerto Rico, and 
the Virgin Islands, and fell in 30 states and the District of 
Columbia (See tables 5 and 6.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar. 
                                2008    2008    2008    2008    2009 

                                      level (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,167   7,296   6,884   6,738   5,746
 At expanding establishments... 5,781   5,869   5,520   5,363   4,603
 At opening establishments..... 1,386   1,427   1,364   1,375   1,143

Gross job losses............... 7,447   7,832   7,851   8,539   8,486
 At contracting establishments. 6,090   6,334   6,461   7,038   7,045
 At closing establishments..... 1,357   1,498   1,390   1,501   1,441

Net employment change(1).......  -280    -536    -967  -1,801  -2,740

                                          rate (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.3     6.5     6.1     6.0     5.2
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     5.2     4.9     4.8     4.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.3     1.2     1.2     1.0

Gross job losses...............   6.5     6.9     6.9     7.6     7.7
 At contracting establishments.   5.3     5.6     5.7     6.3     6.4
 At closing establishments.....   1.2     1.3     1.2     1.3     1.3

Net employment change(1).......  -0.2    -0.4    -0.8    -1.6    -2.5

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.


More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross 
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other 
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, charts 
of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, 
and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by e-mailing 
BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

	
The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2009 is scheduled 
to be released on Tuesday, February 23, 2010 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).




                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  400,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2009.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the first 
quarter of 2009:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                353      8,585       6,626         1,959       8,232       6,395           1,837
      June                 644      8,539       6,661         1,878       7,895       6,210           1,685
      September            588      8,571       6,734         1,837       7,983       6,250           1,733
      December           1,005      8,749       6,956         1,793       7,744       6,076           1,668

2000  March                789      8,792       6,924         1,868       8,003       6,341           1,662
      June                 492      8,499       6,814         1,685       8,007       6,387           1,620
      September            296      8,506       6,728         1,778       8,210       6,483           1,727
      December             295      8,400       6,702         1,698       8,105       6,433           1,672

2001  March               -156      8,436       6,694         1,742       8,592       6,717           1,875
      June                -792      8,009       6,319         1,690       8,801       7,050           1,751
      September         -1,184      7,608       5,917         1,691       8,792       6,991           1,801
      December            -960      7,591       5,932         1,659       8,551       6,858           1,693

2002  March                -39      8,049       6,259         1,790       8,088       6,424           1,664
      June                 -38      7,890       6,164         1,726       7,928       6,290           1,638
      September           -171      7,608       6,015         1,593       7,779       6,248           1,531
      December            -198      7,522       5,960         1,562       7,720       6,171           1,549

2003  March               -412      7,439       5,917         1,522       7,851       6,311           1,540
      June                -104      7,401       5,928         1,473       7,505       6,040           1,465
      September            204      7,383       5,918         1,465       7,179       5,818           1,361
      December             309      7,549       6,016         1,533       7,240       5,802           1,438

2004  March                465      7,709       6,207         1,502       7,244       5,802           1,442
      June                 634      7,747       6,228         1,519       7,113       5,644           1,469
      September            212      7,635       6,062         1,573       7,423       5,880           1,543
      December             775      7,860       6,248         1,612       7,085       5,658           1,427

2005  March                381      7,618       6,139         1,479       7,237       5,805           1,432
      June                 586      7,771       6,223         1,548       7,185       5,779           1,406
      September            676      7,963       6,389         1,574       7,287       5,840           1,447
      December             514      7,826       6,258         1,568       7,312       5,942           1,370

2006  March                800      7,720       6,294         1,426       6,920       5,639           1,281
      June                 417      7,784       6,267         1,517       7,367       6,000           1,367
      September             37      7,493       6,058         1,435       7,456       6,101           1,355
      December             493      7,793       6,254         1,539       7,300       5,947           1,353

2007  March                485      7,651       6,244         1,407       7,166       5,873           1,293
      June                 196      7,653       6,242         1,411       7,457       6,061           1,396
      September           -248      7,325       5,853         1,472       7,573       6,214           1,359
      December             310      7,670       6,214         1,456       7,360       6,010           1,350

2008  March               -280      7,167       5,781         1,386       7,447       6,090           1,357
      June                -536      7,296       5,869         1,427       7,832       6,334           1,498
      September           -967      6,884       5,520         1,364       7,851       6,461           1,390
      December          -1,801      6,738       5,363         1,375       8,539       7,038           1,501

2009  March             -2,740      5,746       4,603         1,143       8,486       7,045           1,441

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                 .3       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.7          6.0            1.7
      June                  .6       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      September             .6       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December             1.0       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.1          5.6            1.5

2000  March                 .7       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .3       7.6         6.1           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.2       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.1          6.4            1.7
      December             -.9       7.0         5.5           1.5         7.9          6.3            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.8           1.7         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December              .0       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.1          5.7            1.4

2003  March                -.4       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.3          5.9            1.4
      June                 -.1       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.1          5.7            1.4
      September             .2       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .3       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .5       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.4       6.5         5.2           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.2         4.2           1.0         7.7          6.4            1.3

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   March   June    Sept.   Dec.    March  March  June   Sept.  Dec.   March 
                                   2008    2008    2008    2008    2009   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,167   7,296   6,884   6,738   5,746    6.3    6.5    6.1    6.0    5.2
 At expanding establishments      5,781   5,869   5,520   5,363   4,603    5.1    5.2    4.9    4.8    4.2
 At opening establishments        1,386   1,427   1,364   1,375   1,143    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.0
Gross job losses                  7,447   7,832   7,851   8,539   8,486    6.5    6.9    6.9    7.6    7.7
 At contracting establishments    6,090   6,334   6,461   7,038   7,045    5.3    5.6    5.7    6.3    6.4
 At closing establishments        1,357   1,498   1,390   1,501   1,441    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.3    1.3
Net employment change              -280    -536    -967  -1,801  -2,740    -.2    -.4    -.8   -1.6   -2.5

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,508   1,509   1,421   1,318   1,077    6.5    6.6    6.3    6.0    5.2
 At expanding establishments      1,270   1,272   1,193   1,091     890    5.5    5.6    5.3    5.0    4.3
 At opening establishments          238     237     228     227     187    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                  1,764   1,796   1,794   2,080   2,290    7.7    7.9    8.1    9.5   11.0
 At contracting establishments    1,485   1,500   1,514   1,766   1,983    6.5    6.6    6.8    8.1    9.5
 At closing establishments          279     296     280     314     307    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.4    1.5
Net employment change              -256    -287    -373    -762  -1,213   -1.2   -1.3   -1.8   -3.5   -5.8

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     281     286     280     288     225   14.9   15.2   14.9   15.2   12.0
 At expanding establishments        240     246     242     247     193   12.7   13.1   12.9   13.0   10.3
 At opening establishments           41      40      38      41      32    2.2    2.1    2.0    2.2    1.7
Gross job losses                    291     272     259     289     339   15.4   14.5   13.8   15.2   18.2
 At contracting establishments      249     231     224     254     295   13.2   12.3   11.9   13.4   15.8
 At closing establishments           42      41      35      35      44    2.2    2.2    1.9    1.8    2.4
Net employment change               -10      14      21      -1    -114    -.5     .7    1.1     .0   -6.2

Construction

Gross job gains                     760     745     710     647     558   10.2   10.2   10.0    9.5    8.6
 At expanding establishments        611     594     563     506     437    8.2    8.1    7.9    7.4    6.7
 At opening establishments          149     151     147     141     121    2.0    2.1    2.1    2.1    1.9
Gross job losses                    878     933     888     984     990   11.8   12.8   12.5   14.4   15.3
 At contracting establishments      705     746     709     780     797    9.5   10.2   10.0   11.4   12.3
 At closing establishments          173     187     179     204     193    2.3    2.6    2.5    3.0    3.0
Net employment change              -118    -188    -178    -337    -432   -1.6   -2.6   -2.5   -4.9   -6.7

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     467     478     431     383     294    3.5    3.5    3.2    2.9    2.4
 At expanding establishments        419     432     388     338     260    3.1    3.2    2.9    2.6    2.1
 At opening establishments           48      46      43      45      34     .4     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    595     591     647     807     961    4.4    4.4    4.8    6.2    7.7
 At contracting establishments      531     523     581     732     891    3.9    3.9    4.3    5.6    7.1
 At closing establishments           64      68      66      75      70     .5     .5     .5     .6     .6
Net employment change              -128    -113    -216    -424    -667    -.9    -.9   -1.6   -3.3   -5.3

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,659   5,787   5,463   5,420   4,669    6.3    6.4    6.1    6.1    5.3
 At expanding establishments      4,511   4,597   4,327   4,272   3,713    5.0    5.1    4.8    4.8    4.2
 At opening establishments        1,148   1,190   1,136   1,148     956    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.1
Gross job losses                  5,683   6,036   6,057   6,459   6,196    6.3    6.6    6.7    7.2    7.0
 At contracting establishments    4,605   4,834   4,947   5,272   5,062    5.1    5.3    5.5    5.9    5.7
 At closing establishments        1,078   1,202   1,110   1,187   1,134    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.3    1.3
Net employment change               -24    -249    -594  -1,039  -1,527     .0    -.2    -.6   -1.1   -1.7

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     298     297     275     260     225    4.9    5.0    4.6    4.4    3.9
 At expanding establishments        241     239     223     205     178    4.0    4.0    3.7    3.5    3.1
 At opening establishments           57      58      52      55      47     .9    1.0     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    308     318     318     366     383    5.1    5.3    5.3    6.2    6.6
 At contracting establishments      240     246     252     291     313    4.0    4.1    4.2    4.9    5.4
 At closing establishments           68      72      66      75      70    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.3    1.2
Net employment change               -10     -21     -43    -106    -158    -.2    -.3    -.7   -1.8   -2.7

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     965     944     898     837     752    6.2    6.0    5.8    5.5    5.1
 At expanding establishments        811     784     737     702     624    5.2    5.0    4.8    4.6    4.2
 At opening establishments          154     160     161     135     128    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    991   1,089   1,073   1,195   1,025    6.3    7.0    6.9    7.9    6.9
 At contracting establishments      859     942     930   1,036     841    5.5    6.1    6.0    6.8    5.7
 At closing establishments          132     147     143     159     184     .8     .9     .9    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               -26    -145    -175    -358    -273    -.1   -1.0   -1.1   -2.4   -1.8

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     214     228     211     238     173    5.0    5.3    4.9    5.6    4.2
 At expanding establishments        181     194     178     205     144    4.2    4.5    4.1    4.8    3.5
 At opening establishments           33      34      33      33      29     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    252     258     253     286     311    5.8    5.9    5.9    6.7    7.4
 At contracting establishments      217     213     212     242     268    5.0    4.9    4.9    5.7    6.4
 At closing establishments           35      45      41      44      43     .8    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               -38     -30     -42     -48    -138    -.8    -.6   -1.0   -1.1   -3.2

Utilities

Gross job gains                      14      16      13      13      12    2.6    2.9    2.3    2.3    2.2
 At expanding establishments         12      14      12      12      11    2.2    2.5    2.1    2.1    2.0
 At opening establishments            2       2       1       1       1     .4     .4     .2     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     11      13      14      12      10    2.0    2.4    2.5    2.2    1.8
 At contracting establishments       10      11      12      11       9    1.8    2.0    2.1    2.0    1.6
 At closing establishments            1       2       2       1       1     .2     .4     .4     .2     .2
Net employment change                 3       3      -1       1       2     .6     .5    -.2     .1     .4

Information

Gross job gains                     151     159     132     134     114    5.0    5.3    4.4    4.6    4.0
 At expanding establishments        127     136     109     108      92    4.2    4.5    3.6    3.7    3.2
 At opening establishments           24      23      23      26      22     .8     .8     .8     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    155     161     171     187     172    5.1    5.3    5.7    6.3    6.0
 At contracting establishments      125     128     142     153     144    4.1    4.2    4.7    5.2    5.0
 At closing establishments           30      33      29      34      28    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change                -4      -2     -39     -53     -58    -.1     .0   -1.3   -1.7   -2.0

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     416     399     381     392     333    5.1    5.0    4.8    4.9    4.3
 At expanding establishments        325     312     295     295     263    4.0    3.9    3.7    3.7    3.4
 At opening establishments           91      87      86      97      70    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2     .9
Gross job losses                    442     458     465     497     456    5.5    5.7    5.9    6.3    5.9
 At contracting establishments      328     348     355     376     356    4.1    4.3    4.5    4.8    4.6
 At closing establishments          114     110     110     121     100    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.5    1.3
Net employment change               -26     -59     -84    -105    -123    -.4    -.7   -1.1   -1.4   -1.6

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,251   1,356   1,248   1,241     982    7.0    7.6    7.0    7.1    5.8
 At expanding establishments      1,007   1,072     995     974     778    5.6    6.0    5.6    5.6    4.6
 At opening establishments          244     284     253     267     204    1.4    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,347   1,448   1,434   1,635   1,540    7.5    8.1    8.1    9.3    9.0
 At contracting establishments    1,081   1,111   1,164   1,331   1,264    6.0    6.2    6.6    7.6    7.4
 At closing establishments          266     337     270     304     276    1.5    1.9    1.5    1.7    1.6
Net employment change               -96     -92    -186    -394    -558    -.5    -.5   -1.1   -2.2   -3.2

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     798     806     808     848     731    4.5    4.5    4.5    4.7    4.0
 At expanding establishments        672     685     683     717     632    3.8    3.8    3.8    4.0    3.5
 At opening establishments          126     121     125     131      99     .7     .7     .7     .7     .5
Gross job losses                    682     721     707     679     723    3.8    4.0    4.0    3.8    3.9
 At contracting establishments      569     589     590     560     606    3.2    3.3    3.3    3.1    3.3
 At closing establishments          113     132     117     119     117     .6     .7     .7     .7     .6
Net employment change               116      85     101     169       8     .7     .5     .5     .9     .1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,168   1,192   1,134   1,121   1,023    8.6    8.8    8.5    8.4    7.7
 At expanding establishments        884     909     859     835     782    6.5    6.7    6.4    6.3    5.9
 At opening establishments          284     283     275     286     241    2.1    2.1    2.1    2.1    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,166   1,238   1,276   1,246   1,236    8.6    9.1    9.5    9.4    9.3
 At contracting establishments      940   1,004   1,034   1,008   1,009    6.9    7.4    7.7    7.6    7.6
 At closing establishments          226     234     242     238     227    1.7    1.7    1.8    1.8    1.7
Net employment change                 2     -46    -142    -125    -213     .0    -.3   -1.0   -1.0   -1.6

Other services

Gross job gains                     293     304     287     269     248    7.5    7.8    7.3    6.9    6.5
 At expanding establishments        235     238     223     209     198    6.0    6.1    5.7    5.4    5.2
 At opening establishments           58      66      64      60      50    1.5    1.7    1.6    1.5    1.3
Gross job losses                    291     297     310     323     309    7.5    7.6    7.9    8.4    8.1
 At contracting establishments      226     231     246     255     244    5.8    5.9    6.3    6.6    6.4
 At closing establishments           65      66      64      68      65    1.7    1.7    1.6    1.8    1.7
Net employment change                 2       7     -23     -54     -61     .0     .2    -.6   -1.5   -1.6

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              March 2008     June  2008      Sept. 2008      Dec.  2008      March 2009


Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   16.3            15.7            16.5            17.1            18.2
   Expanding firms............    7.8             7.4             7.7             7.7             8.8
   Opening firms..............   59.0            58.5            60.0            61.6            61.3
Gross job losses..............   16.8            16.0            15.3            14.5            14.9
   Contracting firms..........    8.1             7.7             7.3             6.9             6.9
   Closing firms..............   61.7            60.6            60.8            60.9            61.6

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.4            11.9            12.2            11.8            13.3
   Expanding firms............   11.6            11.0            11.4            11.1            12.7
   Opening firms..............   16.6            16.6            16.4            15.3            16.3
Gross job losses..............   12.4            11.9            11.3            10.8            10.9
   Contracting firms..........   11.7            11.1            10.5            10.0            10.1
   Closing firms..............   15.7            15.8            15.8            15.8            15.2

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.6            12.2            12.3            11.8            13.1
   Expanding firms............   12.9            12.4            12.6            12.1            13.7
   Opening firms..............   11.1            11.4            10.9            10.2            10.7
Gross job losses..............   12.3            12.0            11.6            11.2            11.3
   Contracting firms..........   12.8            12.3            11.8            11.3            11.6
   Closing firms..............    9.9            10.3            10.2            10.4             9.9

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   14.7            14.5            14.3            13.6            14.8
   Expanding firms............   16.1            15.6            15.5            14.8            16.3
   Opening firms..............    7.8             8.5             8.1             7.7             7.7
Gross job losses..............   14.2            14.0            13.9            13.5            14.1
   Contracting firms..........   15.6            15.2            15.0            14.5            15.2
   Closing firms..............    7.4             7.6             7.7             7.6             7.3

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.1             9.1             9.0             8.5             8.9
   Expanding firms............   10.4            10.3            10.3             9.7            10.3
   Opening firms..............    2.7             2.9             2.8             2.9             2.5
Gross job losses..............    8.7             8.7             8.7             8.9             9.4
   Contracting firms..........    9.9             9.8             9.8             9.9            10.5
   Closing firms..............    2.8             2.8             2.8             2.6             2.9

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.4             9.7             9.4             9.2             8.9
   Expanding firms............   11.0            11.3            11.0            10.8            10.6
   Opening firms..............    1.4             1.4             1.3             1.5             1.1
Gross job losses..............    8.9             9.0             9.4             9.6            10.1
   Contracting firms..........   10.3            10.4            10.8            10.9            11.5
   Closing firms..............    1.6             1.6             1.5             1.7             1.5

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.6             5.7             5.7             5.6             5.1
   Expanding firms............    6.6             6.7             6.8             6.6             6.1
   Opening firms..............     .4              .4              .3              .5              .2
Gross job losses..............    5.3             5.4             5.6             5.9             6.2
   Contracting firms..........    6.3             6.3             6.5             6.7             7.1
   Closing firms..............     .5              .6              .5              .7              .6

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.4             4.7             4.6             4.6             4.0
   Expanding firms............    5.2             5.5             5.5             5.5             4.9
   Opening firms..............     .2              .2              .1              .2              .1
Gross job losses..............    4.2             4.7             4.8             5.0             5.0
   Contracting firms..........    5.0             5.5             5.6             5.7             5.8
   Closing firms..............     .2              .3              .3              .3              .4

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   15.5            16.6            16.0            17.8            13.7
   Expanding firms............   18.4            19.8            19.2            21.6            16.7
   Opening firms..............     .7              .0              .0              .0              .1
Gross job losses..............   17.1            18.3            19.4            20.7            18.1
   Contracting firms..........   20.3            21.7            22.8            24.1            21.1
   Closing firms..............     .2              .6              .4              .1              .7


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.

Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        March      June       Sept.       Dec.      March      March        June       Sept.       Dec.      March
                        2008       2008       2008        2008      2009       2008         2008       2008        2008      2009

United States1.....  7,167,000  7,296,000  6,884,000   6,738,000  5,746,000  7,447,000   7,832,000   7,851,000  8,539,000  8,486,000

Alabama.....            98,251     94,922     94,816      84,322     74,548    104,185     105,846     108,668    120,361    116,192
Alaska.....             25,019     27,331     23,913      26,344     23,272     21,880      23,601      26,373     26,644     25,380
Arizona.....           133,196    135,456    138,104     129,134    113,324    156,552     169,299     161,362    194,424    176,971
Arkansas.....           58,454     57,168     59,379      55,099     51,314     57,206      63,927      62,685     66,942     66,292
California.....        887,418    941,957    832,705     820,460    672,802    989,155   1,013,895     980,907  1,035,009  1,048,711
Colorado.....          142,851    142,169    136,014     127,607    109,813    137,929     143,357     148,883    161,271    161,315
Connecticut.....        77,364     81,736     74,504      71,972     62,355     77,380      83,013      88,540     92,523     91,796
Delaware.....           26,145     23,472     23,376      23,084     18,591     23,740      26,708      28,958     27,469     27,761
District of Columbia    27,927     28,294     28,071      25,184     25,858     25,367      26,859      26,487     31,325     28,003
Florida.....           448,322    456,382    450,727     444,118    354,281    508,226     574,769     569,824    596,670    503,337

Georgia.....           236,822    234,293    221,705     214,969    191,622    250,184     263,788     259,990    299,060    268,140
Hawaii.....             28,354     27,304     25,618      24,171     21,712     28,744      34,549      33,655     33,051     30,629
Idaho.....              44,356     41,269     40,993      38,827     35,289     47,670      48,700      46,621     49,612     54,035
Illinois.....          260,441    279,917    254,616     244,575    209,855    280,414     279,535     299,802    332,994    327,887
Indiana.....           131,913    150,149    144,580     130,650    113,691    151,487     158,041     162,479    192,024    186,934
Iowa.....               76,040     76,433     74,239      71,891     62,521     75,253      78,321      76,942     86,117     86,010
Kansas.....             86,347     73,135     67,406      74,158     55,477     75,385      77,046      75,312     78,873     79,420
Kentucky.....           91,040     91,622     82,629      85,641     74,235     95,199      94,483     100,464    107,293    110,211
Louisiana.....         106,631    106,816    104,278     121,916     94,269    101,928     110,924     121,182    105,935    115,118
Maine.....              35,921     39,345     35,159      38,167     30,943     38,179      39,742      42,833     41,793     42,142

Maryland.....          129,689    130,435    129,603     126,900    116,989    131,801     143,888     141,918    155,992    148,339
Massachusetts.....     159,931    171,611    155,137     148,012    121,358    154,359     161,183     174,428    191,351    181,911
Michigan.....          207,366    226,739    205,112     200,389    164,809    240,151     244,213     264,090    294,392    286,628
Minnesota.....         141,413    140,202    126,433     118,930    110,150    141,101     142,739     144,331    155,332    163,810
Mississippi.....        59,068     56,215     55,227      57,211     48,330     59,450      69,069      67,213     69,254     65,774
Missouri.....          140,987    141,409    133,363     133,009    121,936    139,707     148,981     147,161    168,117    163,155
Montana.....            30,974     27,920     27,560      28,012     24,030     30,138      31,609      28,955     31,386     35,614
Nebraska.....           47,542     44,501     45,532      44,014     38,462     42,749      48,453      45,372     50,286     49,912
Nevada.....             76,465     71,633     66,047      62,481     54,469     86,332      84,432      88,116    100,495     91,854
New Hampshire.....      36,119     38,659     35,183      33,928     31,117     37,588      39,237      39,170     41,931     41,234

New Jersey.....        204,864    229,083    195,759     189,766    167,754    215,025     231,228     239,062    253,478    231,640
New Mexico.....         45,362     44,715     45,984      40,826     36,132     42,831      49,818      46,436     53,047     51,493
New York.....          433,078    471,656    444,515     436,017    356,418    446,642     462,229     471,375    507,653    502,806
North Carolina.....    223,376    210,541    212,080     197,127    173,772    228,184     249,877     238,284    266,978    259,811
North Dakota.....       21,380     19,325     20,282      19,568     16,743     17,223      18,968      18,303     19,341     21,853
Ohio.....              243,757    274,076    246,154     228,078    201,205    280,351     276,452     285,458    323,982    317,188
Oklahoma.....           85,159     83,243     79,824      78,259     69,370     73,095      81,365      79,507     85,333     99,578
Oregon.....             99,174     89,653     98,852      86,304     78,047    101,032     112,034     100,641    126,963    125,470
Pennsylvania.....      271,024    290,004    270,270     256,668    231,793    271,658     287,696     295,758    318,345    318,399
Rhode Island.....       23,739     26,823     24,463      22,015     21,276     26,594      28,139      28,658     30,698     29,893

South Carolina.....    100,661     93,354     88,569      86,056     78,586    101,354     107,890     109,742    123,643    119,015
South Dakota.....       22,032     21,278     21,147      21,073     18,050     19,363      21,816      20,835     22,779     24,121
Tennessee.....         140,705    132,908    125,414     118,251     99,890    144,466     152,948     160,823    165,472    160,793
Texas.....             542,281    529,111    506,352     537,006    435,060    491,737     519,838     538,845    563,136    600,010
Utah.....               72,956     70,663     67,910      65,196     56,649     73,181      78,303      74,639     84,194     84,251
Vermont.....            17,379     18,420     17,186      17,967     15,801     19,211      18,767      19,164     20,207     21,649
Virginia.....          188,264    188,460    179,200     171,660    151,646    184,547     191,564     201,098    211,212    203,738
Washington.....        186,430    161,196    172,096     157,410    151,373    169,739     190,631     165,586    206,251    202,667
West Virginia.....      37,337     35,567     38,757      39,356     34,103     36,999      38,230      36,898     40,515     43,258
Wisconsin.....         133,825    140,273    131,758     129,090    113,792    135,673     145,014     150,873    162,823    174,665

Wyoming.....            23,806     19,701     21,355      19,848     18,033     20,049      23,018      18,960     20,038     26,326
Puerto Rico.....        43,150     44,888     44,689      45,140     36,240     55,157      52,203      49,724     51,035     57,413
Virgin Islands.....      2,274      2,191      2,049       1,978      1,610      2,108       2,513       2,286      2,238      2,611

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        March   June     Sept.    Dec.    March       March    June      Sept.   Dec.     March
                        2008    2008     2008     2008    2009        2008     2008      2008    2008     2009

United States1.....      6.3     6.5      6.1      6.0     5.2         6.5      6.9       6.9      7.6     7.7

Alabama.....             6.1     6.0      6.0      5.4     4.9         6.5      6.7       6.9      7.8     7.7
Alaska.....             10.5    11.5     10.1     11.1     9.7         9.2      9.9      11.1     11.2    10.7
Arizona.....             6.0     6.1      6.3      6.0     5.5         7.0      7.6       7.4      9.1     8.6
Arkansas.....            6.0     5.9      6.1      5.7     5.4         5.8      6.5       6.4      6.9     6.9
California.....          6.8     7.3      6.5      6.5     5.5         7.7      7.8       7.6      8.3     8.5
Colorado.....            7.3     7.2      7.0      6.7     5.9         7.0      7.3       7.6      8.3     8.5
Connecticut.....         5.3     5.6      5.2      5.1     4.5         5.3      5.8       6.1      6.5     6.6
Delaware.....            7.1     6.4      6.4      6.5     5.3         6.5      7.2       8.0      7.7     7.9
District of Columbia..   6.2     6.3      6.2      5.6     5.8         5.7      6.0       5.8      7.0     6.3
Florida.....             6.7     6.8      6.8      6.9     5.7         7.5      8.6       8.7      9.2     8.0

Georgia.....             7.0     7.0      6.6      6.6     6.0         7.4      7.8       7.8      9.1     8.4
Hawaii.....              5.6     5.4      5.1      4.9     4.5         5.7      6.8       6.8      6.8     6.4
Idaho.....               8.1     7.6      7.6      7.3     6.8         8.6      8.9       8.6      9.4    10.4
Illinois.....            5.1     5.5      5.0      4.9     4.4         5.5      5.5       5.9      6.7     6.8
Indiana.....             5.3     6.1      5.8      5.3     4.8         6.0      6.3       6.6      7.9     7.9
Iowa.....                6.0     6.0      5.9      5.8     5.1         5.9      6.2       6.2      7.0     7.0
Kansas.....              7.7     6.6      6.1      6.7     5.1         6.7      6.8       6.7      7.1     7.2
Kentucky.....            6.0     6.1      5.5      5.9     5.2         6.3      6.3       6.8      7.3     7.6
Louisiana.....           6.9     6.9      6.8      7.9     6.1         6.6      7.2       7.9      6.9     7.5
Maine.....               7.1     7.9      7.0      7.7     6.3         7.6      7.9       8.5      8.5     8.6

Maryland.....            6.2     6.3      6.3      6.2     5.8         6.3      7.0       6.9      7.6     7.3
Massachusetts.....       5.7     6.1      5.5      5.3     4.4         5.5      5.8       6.2      6.9     6.6
Michigan.....            5.8     6.5      5.9      5.9     5.0         6.8      6.9       7.6      8.7     8.7
Minnesota.....           6.1     6.1      5.5      5.2     4.9         6.1      6.1       6.2      6.8     7.3
Mississippi.....         6.5     6.2      6.3      6.5     5.6         6.5      7.7       7.6      7.9     7.6
Missouri.....            6.1     6.1      5.9      5.9     5.5         6.1      6.5       6.5      7.4     7.3
Montana.....             8.6     7.8      7.7      7.9     6.9         8.3      8.8       8.1      8.9    10.3
Nebraska.....            6.2     5.8      6.0      5.8     5.1         5.5      6.3       6.0      6.6     6.6
Nevada.....              6.8     6.5      6.0      5.8     5.3         7.7      7.6       8.1      9.4     8.9
New Hampshire.....       6.6     7.1      6.5      6.4     5.9         6.9      7.2       7.2      7.8     7.8

New Jersey.....          6.1     6.9      5.9      5.8     5.2         6.4      6.9       7.2      7.7     7.2
New Mexico.....          7.0     7.0      7.2      6.5     5.9         6.7      7.8       7.3      8.4     8.3
New York.....            6.0     6.6      6.2      6.1     5.0         6.2      6.4       6.6      7.2     7.1
North Carolina.....      6.5     6.3      6.3      5.9     5.4         6.6      7.4       7.1      8.1     8.1
North Dakota.....        7.5     6.8      7.1      6.8     5.9         6.0      6.7       6.4      6.8     7.7
Ohio.....                5.4     6.1      5.5      5.2     4.7         6.2      6.1       6.3      7.3     7.4
Oklahoma.....            6.9     6.7      6.5      6.3     5.7         5.9      6.6       6.4      6.9     8.2
Oregon.....              6.8     6.2      6.9      6.1     5.7         6.9      7.8       7.0      9.0     9.2
Pennsylvania.....        5.4     5.9      5.5      5.2     4.8         5.5      5.8       6.0      6.5     6.6
Rhode Island.....        5.7     6.5      6.0      5.4     5.4         6.4      6.9       7.1      7.7     7.6

South Carolina.....      6.4     6.0      5.8      5.7     5.4         6.5      6.9       7.2      8.2     8.1
South Dakota.....        6.8     6.5      6.5      6.5     5.6         6.0      6.7       6.4      7.0     7.5
Tennessee.....           6.0     5.7      5.4      5.2     4.5         6.1      6.5       7.0      7.3     7.3
Texas.....               6.3     6.1      5.8      6.2     5.0         5.6      6.0       6.2      6.5     7.0
Utah.....                7.1     6.9      6.7      6.5     5.8         7.1      7.6       7.3      8.3     8.6
Vermont.....             6.9     7.4      6.9      7.2     6.5         7.7      7.5       7.7      8.1     8.8
Virginia.....            6.3     6.3      6.0      5.8     5.2         6.1      6.4       6.7      7.2     7.0
Washington.....          7.7     6.7      7.2      6.7     6.5         7.0      7.9       6.9      8.7     8.7
West Virginia.....       6.5     6.2      6.8      6.9     6.0         6.5      6.7       6.4      7.1     7.7
Wisconsin.....           5.6     5.8      5.5      5.4     4.9         5.6      6.1       6.3      6.9     7.5

Wyoming.....            10.6     8.8      9.6      8.9     8.1         9.0     10.3       8.5      8.9    11.9
Puerto Rico.....         5.9     6.2      6.2      6.3     5.2         7.5      7.2       6.9      7.1     8.2
Virgin Islands.....      6.9     6.7      6.3      6.1     5.1         6.4      7.7       7.0      6.9     8.2

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

1999  March               198      3.2       184     3.0        1,305       1.2    1,248       1.2
      June                206      3.4       184     3.0        1,308       1.2    1,118       1.0
      September           206      3.3       186     3.0        1,243       1.2    1,127       1.0
      December            203      3.3       183     3.0        1,207       1.1    1,102       1.0
  
2000  March               211      3.4       186     3.0        1,227       1.1    1,117       1.0
      June                205      3.3       181     2.9        1,142       1.0    1,063       1.0
      September           212      3.4       199     3.2        1,166       1.1    1,167       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,144       1.0    1,120       1.0
  
2001  March               205      3.3       203     3.2        1,174       1.1    1,292       1.2
      June                204      3.2       205     3.3        1,151       1.0    1,236       1.1
      September           204      3.2       209     3.3        1,156       1.1    1,232       1.1
      December            197      3.1       200     3.2        1,121       1.0    1,150       1.1
  
2002  March               203      3.2       190     3.0        1,202       1.1    1,109       1.0
      June                209      3.3       186     2.9        1,192       1.1    1,086       1.0
      September           201      3.2       184     2.9        1,055       1.0    1,026       1.0
      December            203      3.2       191     3.0        1,026       1.0    1,028       1.0
  
2003  March               192      3.0       186     2.9          997        .9    1,007        .9
      June                192      3.0       186     2.9          965        .9      956        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          959        .9      884        .8
      December            201      3.1       179     2.8        1,010        .9      921        .9
  
2004  March               205      3.2       180     2.8          998        .9      914        .9
      June                202      3.1       184     2.8          982        .9      909        .8
      September           210      3.2       186     2.8        1,017        .9      955        .9
      December            212      3.2       181     2.7        1,001        .9      900        .8
  
2005  March               210      3.2       185     2.8          943        .9      850        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          952        .9      839        .8
      September           220      3.3       186     2.8          995        .9      886        .8
      December            224      3.3       188     2.8          980        .9      852        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       181     2.7          921        .8      739        .7
      June                220      3.2       194     2.8          975        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          926        .8      837        .7
      December            222      3.2       194     2.8          969        .9      815        .7
  
2007  March               212      3.1       193     2.8          890        .8      763        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          882        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          942        .8      845        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          909        .8      841        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      803        .7
      June                199      2.9       227     3.3          875        .8      936        .8
      September           191      2.7       N/A     N/A          829        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            193      2.8       N/A     N/A          808        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2009  March               171      2.5       N/A     N/A          697        .6      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: November 19, 2009