Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release: 10:00 A.M. EDT                                      USDL 10-0687
Thursday, May 20, 2010

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2009    

From June to September 2009 the number of gross job gains from 
opening and expanding private sector establishments was 6.3 
million, a decrease of 124,000 jobs compared to the previous 
quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The 
number of gross job losses from private sector closing and 
contracting establishments fell to 7.3 million in the third 
quarter of 2009, a decline of 739,000 from the previous quarter.  
This is the largest over-the-quarter decrease in gross job losses 
since the series began in 1992.

Over this period, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in all 
industry sectors except utilities and education and health services. 
(See table 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in 
the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross job losses 
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the 
loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between the number of 
gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------
| Business Employment Dynamics (BED)--Additional Industry Detail Now  |
| Available                                                           |
|                                                                     |
| With the release of this quarter’s data, additional industry level  | 
| detail (3-digit NAICS) is now available from the BED program on     |
| the BLS Web site (www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmind3.htm). These data are      |
| available at the national level from 1992Q3 through 2009Q3 and will |
| be updated quarterly.                                               |
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by major industry sector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class. 
 
Contracting establishments lost 5.9 million jobs in the third quarter 
of 2009, a decrease of 746,000 job losses compared to the 6.6 million 
jobs lost in the previous quarter. 

Expanding establishments gained 5.1 million jobs, essentially the same 
number as in the previous quarter.

Closing establishments lost 1.4 million jobs, little changed from the 
previous quarter. 

Opening establishments gained 1.2 million jobs, a decrease of 120,000 
jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables 1 and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number 
of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -964,000 jobs in the 
private sector for third quarter 2009. 

Gross job gains represented 5.9 percent of private sector employment, 
while gross job losses represented 6.8 percent of private sector 
employment.  (See table 2.)

Establishment births, a subset of the openings data (see the Technical 
Note for more information), added 695,000 jobs at 169,000 new 
establishments in the third quarter 2009.  Data for establishment 
deaths, a subset of the closings data, are now available for December 
2008, when 958,000 jobs were lost at 241,000 establishments. (See 
table 7.)

From June to September 2009, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains 
in all industry sectors except utilities and education and health 
services.  (See table 3.)  The utilities sector experienced no net 
employment change for the third quarter 2009.  Gross job gains in the 
education and health services sector decreased to 761,000 jobs in the 
third quarter, while gross job losses increased to 733,000.  This 
industry sector is the only one which has experienced a net positive 
change in every quarter since this series began in 1992.

From June to September 2009 the share of gross job gains accounted for 
by firms with 1 to 4 employees fell from 16.9 to 16.5 percent.  Firms 
with 1,000 or more employees experienced an increase in the share of 
gross job gains from 14.7 to 16.9 percent.  (See table 4.)

In the third quarter of 2009, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains 
in all states, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto 
Rico except for Idaho, Indiana and North Dakota where gross job gains 
exceeded gross job losses. (See tables 5 and 6.) 


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept. 
                                2008    2008    2009    2009    2009 

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,884   6,738   5,746   6,420   6,296
 At expanding establishments... 5,520   5,363   4,603   5,116   5,112
 At opening establishments..... 1,364   1,375   1,143   1,304   1,184

Gross job losses............... 7,851   8,539   8,486   7,999   7,260
 At contracting establishments. 6,461   7,038   7,045   6,598   5,852
 At closing establishments..... 1,390   1,501   1,441   1,401   1,408

Net employment change(1).......  -967  -1,801  -2,740  -1,579    -964

                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.1     6.0     5.2     6.0     5.9
 At expanding establishments...   4.9     4.8     4.2     4.8     4.8
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.0     1.2     1.1

Gross job losses...............   6.9     7.6     7.7     7.5     6.8
 At contracting establishments.   5.7     6.3     6.4     6.2     5.5
 At closing establishments.....   1.2     1.3     1.3     1.3     1.3

Net employment change(1).......   -.8    -1.6    -2.5    -1.5     -.9

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.

More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross 
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other 
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, charts 
of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, 
and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by e-mailing 
BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2009 is scheduled 
to be released on Wednesday, August 18, 2010 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).









                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  410,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the third quarter of 2009.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
third quarter of 2009:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                353      8,585       6,626         1,959       8,232       6,395           1,837
      June                 644      8,539       6,661         1,878       7,895       6,210           1,685
      September            588      8,571       6,734         1,837       7,983       6,250           1,733
      December           1,005      8,749       6,956         1,793       7,744       6,076           1,668

2000  March                789      8,792       6,924         1,868       8,003       6,341           1,662
      June                 492      8,499       6,814         1,685       8,007       6,387           1,620
      September            296      8,506       6,728         1,778       8,210       6,483           1,727
      December             295      8,400       6,702         1,698       8,105       6,433           1,672

2001  March               -156      8,436       6,694         1,742       8,592       6,717           1,875
      June                -792      8,009       6,319         1,690       8,801       7,050           1,751
      September         -1,184      7,608       5,917         1,691       8,792       6,991           1,801
      December            -960      7,591       5,932         1,659       8,551       6,858           1,693

2002  March                -39      8,049       6,259         1,790       8,088       6,424           1,664
      June                 -38      7,890       6,164         1,726       7,928       6,290           1,638
      September           -171      7,608       6,015         1,593       7,779       6,248           1,531
      December            -198      7,522       5,960         1,562       7,720       6,171           1,549

2003  March               -412      7,439       5,917         1,522       7,851       6,311           1,540
      June                -104      7,401       5,928         1,473       7,505       6,040           1,465
      September            204      7,383       5,918         1,465       7,179       5,818           1,361
      December             309      7,549       6,016         1,533       7,240       5,802           1,438

2004  March                465      7,709       6,207         1,502       7,244       5,802           1,442
      June                 634      7,747       6,228         1,519       7,113       5,644           1,469
      September            212      7,635       6,062         1,573       7,423       5,880           1,543
      December             775      7,860       6,248         1,612       7,085       5,658           1,427

2005  March                381      7,618       6,139         1,479       7,237       5,805           1,432
      June                 586      7,771       6,223         1,548       7,185       5,779           1,406
      September            676      7,963       6,389         1,574       7,287       5,840           1,447
      December             514      7,826       6,258         1,568       7,312       5,942           1,370

2006  March                800      7,720       6,294         1,426       6,920       5,639           1,281
      June                 417      7,784       6,267         1,517       7,367       6,000           1,367
      September             37      7,493       6,058         1,435       7,456       6,101           1,355
      December             493      7,793       6,254         1,539       7,300       5,947           1,353

2007  March                485      7,651       6,244         1,407       7,166       5,873           1,293
      June                 196      7,653       6,242         1,411       7,457       6,061           1,396
      September           -248      7,325       5,853         1,472       7,573       6,214           1,359
      December             310      7,670       6,214         1,456       7,360       6,010           1,350

2008  March               -280      7,167       5,781         1,386       7,447       6,090           1,357
      June                -536      7,296       5,869         1,427       7,832       6,334           1,498
      September           -967      6,884       5,520         1,364       7,851       6,461           1,390
      December          -1,801      6,738       5,363         1,375       8,539       7,038           1,501

2009  March             -2,740      5,746       4,603         1,143       8,486       7,045           1,441
      June              -1,579      6,420       5,116         1,304       7,999       6,598           1,401
      September           -964      6,296       5,112         1,184       7,260       5,852           1,408

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                 .3       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.7          6.0            1.7
      June                  .6       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      September             .6       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December             1.0       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.1          5.6            1.5

2000  March                 .7       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .3       7.6         6.1           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.2       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.1          6.4            1.7
      December             -.9       7.0         5.5           1.5         7.9          6.3            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.8           1.7         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December              .0       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.1          5.7            1.4

2003  March                -.4       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.3          5.9            1.4
      June                 -.1       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.1          5.7            1.4
      September             .2       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .3       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .5       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.4       6.5         5.2           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.2         4.2           1.0         7.7          6.4            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept.   Dec.    March   June    Sept.  Sept.  Dec.   March  June   Sept. 
                                   2008    2008    2009    2009    2009   2008   2008   2009   2009   2009
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,884   6,738   5,746   6,420   6,296    6.1    6.0    5.2    6.0    5.9
 At expanding establishments      5,520   5,363   4,603   5,116   5,112    4.9    4.8    4.2    4.8    4.8
 At opening establishments        1,364   1,375   1,143   1,304   1,184    1.2    1.2    1.0    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  7,851   8,539   8,486   7,999   7,260    6.9    7.6    7.7    7.5    6.8
 At contracting establishments    6,461   7,038   7,045   6,598   5,852    5.7    6.3    6.4    6.2    5.5
 At closing establishments        1,390   1,501   1,441   1,401   1,408    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.3
Net employment change              -967  -1,801  -2,740  -1,579    -964    -.8   -1.6   -2.5   -1.5    -.9

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,421   1,318   1,077   1,266   1,330    6.3    6.0    5.2    6.4    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,193   1,091     890   1,047   1,132    5.3    5.0    4.3    5.3    5.9
 At opening establishments          228     227     187     219     198    1.0    1.0     .9    1.1    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,794   2,080   2,290   2,145   1,663    8.1    9.5   11.0   10.8    8.6
 At contracting establishments    1,514   1,766   1,983   1,843   1,370    6.8    8.1    9.5    9.3    7.1
 At closing establishments          280     314     307     302     293    1.3    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change              -373    -762  -1,213    -879    -333   -1.8   -3.5   -5.8   -4.4   -1.7

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     280     288     225     283     253   14.9   15.2   12.0   15.8   14.4
 At expanding establishments        242     247     193     239     220   12.9   13.0   10.3   13.3   12.5
 At opening establishments           38      41      32      44      33    2.0    2.2    1.7    2.5    1.9
Gross job losses                    259     289     339     307     283   13.8   15.2   18.2   17.1   16.0
 At contracting establishments      224     254     295     263     246   11.9   13.4   15.8   14.6   13.9
 At closing establishments           35      35      44      44      37    1.9    1.8    2.4    2.5    2.1
Net employment change                21      -1    -114     -24     -30    1.1     .0   -6.2   -1.3   -1.6

Construction

Gross job gains                     710     647     558     614     604   10.0    9.5    8.6   10.1   10.4
 At expanding establishments        563     506     437     480     478    7.9    7.4    6.7    7.9    8.2
 At opening establishments          147     141     121     134     126    2.1    2.1    1.9    2.2    2.2
Gross job losses                    888     984     990     940     805   12.5   14.4   15.3   15.4   13.7
 At contracting establishments      709     780     797     759     627   10.0   11.4   12.3   12.4   10.7
 At closing establishments          179     204     193     181     178    2.5    3.0    3.0    3.0    3.0
Net employment change              -178    -337    -432    -326    -201   -2.5   -4.9   -6.7   -5.3   -3.3

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     431     383     294     369     473    3.2    2.9    2.4    3.0    4.0
 At expanding establishments        388     338     260     328     434    2.9    2.6    2.1    2.7    3.7
 At opening establishments           43      45      34      41      39     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    647     807     961     898     575    4.8    6.2    7.7    7.5    5.0
 At contracting establishments      581     732     891     821     497    4.3    5.6    7.1    6.9    4.3
 At closing establishments           66      75      70      77      78     .5     .6     .6     .6     .7
Net employment change              -216    -424    -667    -529    -102   -1.6   -3.3   -5.3   -4.5   -1.0

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,463   5,420   4,669   5,154   4,966    6.1    6.1    5.3    5.9    5.7
 At expanding establishments      4,327   4,272   3,713   4,069   3,980    4.8    4.8    4.2    4.7    4.6
 At opening establishments        1,136   1,148     956   1,085     986    1.3    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,057   6,459   6,196   5,854   5,597    6.7    7.2    7.0    6.7    6.5
 At contracting establishments    4,947   5,272   5,062   4,755   4,482    5.5    5.9    5.7    5.4    5.2
 At closing establishments        1,110   1,187   1,134   1,099   1,115    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.3
Net employment change              -594  -1,039  -1,527    -700    -631    -.6   -1.1   -1.7    -.8    -.8

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     275     260     225     239     230    4.6    4.4    3.9    4.2    4.2
 At expanding establishments        223     205     178     193     186    3.7    3.5    3.1    3.4    3.4
 At opening establishments           52      55      47      46      44     .9     .9     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    318     366     383     355     306    5.3    6.2    6.6    6.3    5.6
 At contracting establishments      252     291     313     288     235    4.2    4.9    5.4    5.1    4.3
 At closing establishments           66      75      70      67      71    1.1    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.3
Net employment change               -43    -106    -158    -116     -76    -.7   -1.8   -2.7   -2.1   -1.4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     898     837     752     865     825    5.8    5.5    5.1    5.9    5.7
 At expanding establishments        737     702     624     732     697    4.8    4.6    4.2    5.0    4.8
 At opening establishments          161     135     128     133     128    1.0     .9     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                  1,073   1,195   1,025     915     939    6.9    7.9    6.9    6.2    6.4
 At contracting establishments      930   1,036     841     776     795    6.0    6.8    5.7    5.3    5.4
 At closing establishments          143     159     184     139     144     .9    1.1    1.2     .9    1.0
Net employment change              -175    -358    -273     -50    -114   -1.1   -2.4   -1.8    -.3    -.7

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     211     238     173     184     186    4.9    5.6    4.2    4.5    4.7
 At expanding establishments        178     205     144     151     158    4.1    4.8    3.5    3.7    4.0
 At opening establishments           33      33      29      33      28     .8     .8     .7     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    253     286     311     290     239    5.9    6.7    7.4    7.2    6.0
 At contracting establishments      212     242     268     245     195    4.9    5.7    6.4    6.1    4.9
 At closing establishments           41      44      43      45      44    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               -42     -48    -138    -106     -53   -1.0   -1.1   -3.2   -2.7   -1.3

Utilities

Gross job gains                      13      13      12      12      12    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.2    2.2
 At expanding establishments         12      12      11      11      11    2.1    2.1    2.0    2.0    2.0
 At opening establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     14      12      10      16      12    2.5    2.2    1.8    2.9    2.2
 At contracting establishments       12      11       9      14      11    2.1    2.0    1.6    2.5    2.0
 At closing establishments            2       1       1       2       1     .4     .2     .2     .4     .2
Net employment change                -1       1       2      -4       0    -.2     .1     .4    -.7     .0

Information

Gross job gains                     132     134     114     111     116    4.4    4.6    4.0    3.9    4.2
 At expanding establishments        109     108      92      90      97    3.6    3.7    3.2    3.2    3.5
 At opening establishments           23      26      22      21      19     .8     .9     .8     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    171     187     172     160     158    5.7    6.3    6.0    5.6    5.6
 At contracting establishments      142     153     144     134     130    4.7    5.2    5.0    4.7    4.6
 At closing establishments           29      34      28      26      28    1.0    1.1    1.0     .9    1.0
Net employment change               -39     -53     -58     -49     -42   -1.3   -1.7   -2.0   -1.7   -1.4

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     381     392     333     339     327    4.8    4.9    4.3    4.5    4.3
 At expanding establishments        295     295     263     265     256    3.7    3.7    3.4    3.5    3.4
 At opening establishments           86      97      70      74      71    1.1    1.2     .9    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                    465     497     456     445     426    5.9    6.3    5.9    5.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments      355     376     356     351     320    4.5    4.8    4.6    4.6    4.2
 At closing establishments          110     121     100      94     106    1.4    1.5    1.3    1.2    1.4
Net employment change               -84    -105    -123    -106     -99   -1.1   -1.4   -1.6   -1.3   -1.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,248   1,241     982   1,140   1,138    7.0    7.1    5.8    6.9    7.0
 At expanding establishments        995     974     778     908     928    5.6    5.6    4.6    5.5    5.7
 At opening establishments          253     267     204     232     210    1.4    1.5    1.2    1.4    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,434   1,635   1,540   1,471   1,319    8.1    9.3    9.0    8.9    8.0
 At contracting establishments    1,164   1,331   1,264   1,163   1,035    6.6    7.6    7.4    7.0    6.3
 At closing establishments          270     304     276     308     284    1.5    1.7    1.6    1.9    1.7
Net employment change              -186    -394    -558    -331    -181   -1.1   -2.2   -3.2   -2.0   -1.0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     808     848     731     770     761    4.5    4.7    4.0    4.2    4.1
 At expanding establishments        683     717     632     647     649    3.8    4.0    3.5    3.5    3.5
 At opening establishments          125     131      99     123     112     .7     .7     .5     .7     .6
Gross job losses                    707     679     723     710     733    4.0    3.8    3.9    3.9    4.0
 At contracting establishments      590     560     606     588     597    3.3    3.1    3.3    3.2    3.3
 At closing establishments          117     119     117     122     136     .7     .7     .6     .7     .7
Net employment change               101     169       8      60      28     .5     .9     .1     .3     .1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,134   1,121   1,023   1,114   1,028    8.5    8.4    7.7    8.5    7.9
 At expanding establishments        859     835     782     853     790    6.4    6.3    5.9    6.5    6.1
 At opening establishments          275     286     241     261     238    2.1    2.1    1.8    2.0    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,276   1,246   1,236   1,174   1,139    9.5    9.4    9.3    9.0    8.7
 At contracting establishments    1,034   1,008   1,009     962     928    7.7    7.6    7.6    7.4    7.1
 At closing establishments          242     238     227     212     211    1.8    1.8    1.7    1.6    1.6
Net employment change              -142    -125    -213     -60    -111   -1.0   -1.0   -1.6    -.5    -.8

Other services

Gross job gains                     287     269     248     265     245    7.3    6.9    6.5    7.0    6.6
 At expanding establishments        223     209     198     208     194    5.7    5.4    5.2    5.5    5.2
 At opening establishments           64      60      50      57      51    1.6    1.5    1.3    1.5    1.4
Gross job losses                    310     323     309     290     293    7.9    8.4    8.1    7.7    7.8
 At contracting establishments      246     255     244     226     228    6.3    6.6    6.4    6.0    6.1
 At closing establishments           64      68      65      64      65    1.6    1.8    1.7    1.7    1.7
Net employment change               -23     -54     -61     -25     -48    -.6   -1.5   -1.6    -.7   -1.2

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              Sept. 2008     Dec.  2008      March 2009      June  2009      Sept. 2009


Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   16.5            17.1            18.2            16.9            16.5
   Expanding firms............    7.7             7.7             8.8             8.0             7.9
   Opening firms..............   60.0            61.6            61.3            58.6            61.6
Gross job losses..............   15.3            14.5            14.9            14.4            16.1
   Contracting firms..........    7.3             6.9             6.9             6.7             7.2
   Closing firms..............   60.8            60.9            61.6            61.5            61.4

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.2            11.8            13.3            12.4            12.0
   Expanding firms............   11.4            11.1            12.7            11.7            11.3
   Opening firms..............   16.4            15.3            16.3            15.9            15.6
Gross job losses..............   11.3            10.8            10.9            10.5            11.1
   Contracting firms..........   10.5            10.0            10.1             9.7            10.2
   Closing firms..............   15.8            15.8            15.2            15.8            15.7

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.3            11.8            13.1            12.6            12.0
   Expanding firms............   12.6            12.1            13.7            13.0            12.4
   Opening firms..............   10.9            10.2            10.7            10.8            10.3
Gross job losses..............   11.6            11.2            11.3            10.9            11.3
   Contracting firms..........   11.8            11.3            11.6            11.0            11.6
   Closing firms..............   10.2            10.4             9.9            10.2            10.0

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   14.3            13.6            14.8            14.7            13.9
   Expanding firms............   15.5            14.8            16.3            16.1            15.1
   Opening firms..............    8.1             7.7             7.7             8.3             7.7
Gross job losses..............   13.9            13.5            14.1            13.1            13.5
   Contracting firms..........   15.0            14.5            15.2            14.1            14.8
   Closing firms..............    7.7             7.6             7.3             7.3             7.1

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.0             8.5             8.9             9.1             8.8
   Expanding firms............   10.3             9.7            10.3            10.4            10.0
   Opening firms..............    2.8             2.9             2.5             2.7             2.8
Gross job losses..............    8.7             8.9             9.4             8.5             8.4
   Contracting firms..........    9.8             9.9            10.5             9.5             9.5
   Closing firms..............    2.8             2.6             2.9             2.6             2.5

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.4             9.2             8.9             9.5             9.3
   Expanding firms............   11.0            10.8            10.6            11.2            10.8
   Opening firms..............    1.3             1.5             1.1             1.5             1.5
Gross job losses..............    9.4             9.6            10.1             9.3             9.0
   Contracting firms..........   10.8            10.9            11.5            10.5            10.5
   Closing firms..............    1.5             1.7             1.5             1.6             1.5

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.7             5.6             5.1             5.6             5.7
   Expanding firms............    6.8             6.6             6.1             6.7             6.7
   Opening firms..............     .3              .5              .2              .4              .4
Gross job losses..............    5.6             5.9             6.2             5.9             5.7
   Contracting firms..........    6.5             6.7             7.1             6.8             6.7
   Closing firms..............     .5              .7              .6              .6              .6

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.6             4.6             4.0             4.4             4.9
   Expanding firms............    5.5             5.5             4.9             5.3             5.8
   Opening firms..............     .1              .2              .1              .3              .1
Gross job losses..............    4.8             5.0             5.0             5.3             4.7
   Contracting firms..........    5.6             5.7             5.8             6.1             5.6
   Closing firms..............     .3              .3              .4              .2              .4

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   16.0            17.8            13.7            14.7            16.9
   Expanding firms............   19.2            21.6            16.7            17.6            20.1
   Opening firms..............     .0              .0              .1             1.3              .0
Gross job losses..............   19.4            20.7            18.1            22.1            20.2
   Contracting firms..........   22.8            24.1            21.1            25.7            24.0
   Closing firms..............     .4              .1              .7              .1              .8


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.

Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       March       June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       March       June      Sept.
                        2008       2008       2009        2009      2009       2008         2008       2009        2009      2009

United States1.....  6,884,000  6,738,000  5,746,000   6,420,000  6,296,000  7,851,000   8,539,000   8,486,000  7,999,000  7,260,000

Alabama.....            94,816     84,322     74,548      80,612     83,587    108,668     120,361     116,192    105,956    102,211
Alaska.....             23,913     26,344     23,272      25,501     22,555     26,373      26,644      25,380     25,347     24,767
Arizona.....           138,104    129,134    113,324     114,433    127,059    161,362     194,424     176,971    167,403    144,082
Arkansas.....           59,379     55,099     51,314      49,030     53,525     62,685      66,942      66,292     69,982     58,259
California.....        832,705    820,460    672,802     772,918    754,988    980,907   1,035,009   1,048,711    976,062    950,556
Colorado.....          136,014    127,607    109,813     119,950    118,040    148,883     161,271     161,315    152,189    138,776
Connecticut.....        74,504     71,972     62,355      71,878     69,384     88,540      92,523      91,796     86,207     79,698
Delaware.....           23,376     23,084     18,591      21,917     18,838     28,958      27,469      27,761     24,826     23,796
District of Columbia    28,071     25,184     25,858      24,547     22,534     26,487      31,325      28,003     25,894     27,476
Florida.....           450,727    444,118    354,281     391,029    397,599    569,824     596,670     503,337    496,060    478,219

Georgia.....           221,705    214,969    191,622     206,461    190,583    259,990     299,060     268,140    260,392    234,743
Hawaii.....             25,618     24,171     21,712      22,904     23,372     33,655      33,051      30,629     31,193     28,454
Idaho.....              40,993     38,827     35,289      37,691     39,334     46,621      49,612      54,035     48,908     38,018
Illinois.....          254,616    244,575    209,855     248,535    235,424    299,802     332,994     327,887    322,641    284,697
Indiana.....           144,580    130,650    113,691     127,656    140,910    162,479     192,024     186,934    178,336    140,584
Iowa.....               74,239     71,891     62,521      67,741     64,060     76,942      86,117      86,010     81,445     71,247
Kansas.....             67,406     74,158     55,477      58,952     57,666     75,312      78,873      79,420     81,324     67,589
Kentucky.....           82,629     85,641     74,235      80,446     83,163    100,464     107,293     110,211    102,102     89,218
Louisiana.....         104,278    121,916     94,269      90,921     96,911    121,182     105,935     115,118    120,721    112,469
Maine.....              35,159     38,167     30,943      37,231     35,942     42,833      41,793      42,142     39,597     36,653

Maryland.....          129,603    126,900    116,989     127,395    117,095    141,918     155,992     148,339    138,683    138,105
Massachusetts.....     155,137    148,012    121,358     153,055    145,879    174,428     191,351     181,911    169,900    160,835
Michigan.....          205,112    200,389    164,809     207,715    234,479    264,090     294,392     286,628    299,545    234,549
Minnesota.....         126,433    118,930    110,150     130,928    126,646    144,331     155,332     163,810    150,093    142,075
Mississippi.....        55,227     57,211     48,330      47,816     50,459     67,213      69,254      65,774     64,564     58,740
Missouri.....          133,363    133,009    121,936     127,656    126,233    147,161     168,117     163,155    159,538    145,067
Montana.....            27,560     28,012     24,030      27,411     25,348     28,955      31,386      35,614     29,232     27,463
Nebraska.....           45,532     44,014     38,462      40,000     39,577     45,372      50,286      49,912     48,467     42,057
Nevada.....             66,047     62,481     54,469      55,000     58,837     88,116     100,495      91,854     82,009     73,918
New Hampshire.....      35,183     33,928     31,117      35,690     32,864     39,170      41,931      41,234     41,021     37,478

New Jersey.....        195,759    189,766    167,754     214,410    188,559    239,062     253,478     231,640    228,474    216,432
New Mexico.....         45,984     40,826     36,132      38,339     39,184     46,436      53,047      51,493     49,388     41,977
New York.....          444,515    436,017    356,418     439,771    410,127    471,375     507,653     502,806    496,423    447,883
North Carolina.....    212,080    197,127    173,772     188,633    183,145    238,284     266,978     259,811    236,650    212,417
North Dakota.....       20,282     19,568     16,743      19,483     20,164     18,303      19,341      21,853     19,578     18,109
Ohio.....              246,154    228,078    201,205     236,932    233,706    285,458     323,982     317,188    316,738    260,654
Oklahoma.....           79,824     78,259     69,370      66,260     65,335     79,507      85,333      99,578    100,494     86,247
Oregon.....             98,852     86,304     78,047      86,577     86,169    100,641     126,963     125,470    108,603     93,229
Pennsylvania.....      270,270    256,668    231,793     254,916    250,863    295,758     318,345     318,399    302,189    285,919
Rhode Island.....       24,463     22,015     21,276      24,361     21,553     28,658      30,698      29,893     25,285     29,240

South Carolina.....     88,569     86,056     78,586      86,025     83,889    109,742     123,643     119,015    110,427     96,914
South Dakota.....       21,147     21,073     18,050      20,798     19,821     20,835      22,779      24,121     24,173     21,148
Tennessee.....         125,414    118,251     99,890     118,193    114,982    160,823     165,472     160,793    159,338    134,568
Texas.....             506,352    537,006    435,060     442,377    440,450    538,845     563,136     600,010    598,252    519,753
Utah.....               67,910     65,196     56,649      62,683     68,122     74,639      84,194      84,251     80,188     70,320
Vermont.....            17,186     17,967     15,801      17,916     16,408     19,164      20,207      21,649     21,155     17,522
Virginia.....          179,200    171,660    151,646     168,537    158,307    201,098     211,212     203,738    198,874    184,500
Washington.....        172,096    157,410    151,373     158,451    158,563    165,586     206,251     202,667    190,911    170,635
West Virginia.....      38,757     39,356     34,103      32,836     32,674     36,898      40,515      43,258     44,398     37,355
Wisconsin.....         131,758    129,090    113,792     124,463    120,316    150,873     162,823     174,665    160,442    142,424

Wyoming.....            21,355     19,848     18,033      15,800     16,676     18,960      20,038      26,326     25,436     17,900
Puerto Rico.....        44,689     45,140     36,240      37,255     41,232     49,724      51,035      57,413     50,935     44,962
Virgin Islands.....      2,049      1,978      1,610       1,618      1,727      2,286       2,238       2,611      2,702      2,225

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     March    June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      March   June     Sept.
                        2008    2008     2009     2009    2009        2008     2008      2009    2009     2009

United States1.....      6.1     6.0      5.2      6.0     5.9         6.9      7.6       7.7      7.5     6.8

Alabama.....             6.0     5.4      4.9      5.5     5.7         6.9      7.8       7.7      7.2     7.0
Alaska.....             10.1    11.1      9.7     10.8     9.7        11.1     11.2      10.7     10.8    10.6
Arizona.....             6.3     6.0      5.5      5.7     6.4         7.4      9.1       8.6      8.4     7.3
Arkansas.....            6.1     5.7      5.4      5.3     5.8         6.4      6.9       6.9      7.4     6.3
California.....          6.5     6.5      5.5      6.5     6.4         7.6      8.3       8.5      8.1     8.0
Colorado.....            7.0     6.7      5.9      6.5     6.5         7.6      8.3       8.5      8.2     7.6
Connecticut.....         5.2     5.1      4.5      5.2     5.1         6.1      6.5       6.6      6.3     5.8
Delaware.....            6.4     6.5      5.3      6.3     5.5         8.0      7.7       7.9      7.2     7.0
District of Columbia..   6.2     5.6      5.8      5.5     5.1         5.8      7.0       6.3      5.8     6.2
Florida.....             6.8     6.9      5.7      6.4     6.5         8.7      9.2       8.0      8.1     7.9

Georgia.....             6.6     6.6      6.0      6.5     6.1         7.8      9.1       8.4      8.2     7.6
Hawaii.....              5.1     4.9      4.5      4.8     5.0         6.8      6.8       6.4      6.6     6.0
Idaho.....               7.6     7.3      6.8      7.5     8.0         8.6      9.4      10.4      9.8     7.6
Illinois.....            5.0     4.9      4.4      5.2     5.0         5.9      6.7       6.8      6.8     6.0
Indiana.....             5.8     5.3      4.8      5.6     6.2         6.6      7.9       7.9      7.7     6.1
Iowa.....                5.9     5.8      5.1      5.6     5.4         6.2      7.0       7.0      6.8     6.0
Kansas.....              6.1     6.7      5.1      5.4     5.5         6.7      7.1       7.2      7.6     6.4
Kentucky.....            5.5     5.9      5.2      5.7     5.9         6.8      7.3       7.6      7.2     6.4
Louisiana.....           6.8     7.9      6.1      6.1     6.5         7.9      6.9       7.5      8.0     7.6
Maine.....               7.0     7.7      6.3      7.8     7.5         8.5      8.5       8.6      8.2     7.7

Maryland.....            6.3     6.2      5.8      6.4     5.9         6.9      7.6       7.3      7.0     7.0
Massachusetts.....       5.5     5.3      4.4      5.7     5.4         6.2      6.9       6.6      6.2     6.0
Michigan.....            5.9     5.9      5.0      6.5     7.4         7.6      8.7       8.7      9.4     7.4
Minnesota.....           5.5     5.2      4.9      6.0     5.8         6.2      6.8       7.3      6.8     6.6
Mississippi.....         6.3     6.5      5.6      5.6     6.1         7.6      7.9       7.6      7.7     7.1
Missouri.....            5.9     5.9      5.5      5.9     5.9         6.5      7.4       7.3      7.4     6.8
Montana.....             7.7     7.9      6.9      8.0     7.5         8.1      8.9      10.3      8.6     8.2
Nebraska.....            6.0     5.8      5.1      5.4     5.4         6.0      6.6       6.6      6.5     5.7
Nevada.....              6.0     5.8      5.3      5.5     6.1         8.1      9.4       8.9      8.3     7.6
New Hampshire.....       6.5     6.4      5.9      6.8     6.4         7.2      7.8       7.8      7.8     7.3

New Jersey.....          5.9     5.8      5.2      6.8     5.9         7.2      7.7       7.2      7.2     6.8
New Mexico.....          7.2     6.5      5.9      6.3     6.5         7.3      8.4       8.3      8.2     7.0
New York.....            6.2     6.1      5.0      6.4     5.9         6.6      7.2       7.1      7.2     6.5
North Carolina.....      6.3     5.9      5.4      5.9     5.9         7.1      8.1       8.1      7.5     6.8
North Dakota.....        7.1     6.8      5.9      6.8     7.1         6.4      6.8       7.7      6.9     6.3
Ohio.....                5.5     5.2      4.7      5.6     5.6         6.3      7.3       7.4      7.5     6.3
Oklahoma.....            6.5     6.3      5.7      5.6     5.6         6.4      6.9       8.2      8.5     7.5
Oregon.....              6.9     6.1      5.7      6.4     6.5         7.0      9.0       9.2      8.1     7.1
Pennsylvania.....        5.5     5.2      4.8      5.3     5.3         6.0      6.5       6.6      6.3     6.1
Rhode Island.....        6.0     5.4      5.4      6.2     5.6         7.1      7.7       7.6      6.5     7.6

South Carolina.....      5.8     5.7      5.4      6.0     5.9         7.2      8.2       8.1      7.7     6.8
South Dakota.....        6.5     6.5      5.6      6.5     6.2         6.4      7.0       7.5      7.6     6.7
Tennessee.....           5.4     5.2      4.5      5.4     5.4         7.0      7.3       7.3      7.4     6.3
Texas.....               5.8     6.2      5.0      5.2     5.3         6.2      6.5       7.0      7.1     6.3
Utah.....                6.7     6.5      5.8      6.5     7.1         7.3      8.3       8.6      8.4     7.4
Vermont.....             6.9     7.2      6.5      7.5     6.9         7.7      8.1       8.8      8.8     7.4
Virginia.....            6.0     5.8      5.2      5.9     5.6         6.7      7.2       7.0      7.0     6.5
Washington.....          7.2     6.7      6.5      6.9     7.1         6.9      8.7       8.7      8.4     7.5
West Virginia.....       6.8     6.9      6.0      5.9     6.0         6.4      7.1       7.7      8.0     6.8
Wisconsin.....           5.5     5.4      4.9      5.5     5.4         6.3      6.9       7.5      7.1     6.4

Wyoming.....             9.6     8.9      8.1      7.4     8.1         8.5      8.9      11.9     12.0     8.7
Puerto Rico.....         6.2     6.3      5.2      5.4     6.1         6.9      7.1       8.2      7.4     6.6
Virgin Islands.....      6.3     6.1      5.1      5.3     5.7         7.0      6.9       8.2      8.8     7.4

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

1999  March               198      3.2       184     3.0        1,305       1.2    1,248       1.2
      June                206      3.4       184     3.0        1,308       1.2    1,118       1.0
      September           206      3.3       186     3.0        1,243       1.2    1,127       1.0
      December            203      3.3       183     3.0        1,207       1.1    1,102       1.0
  
2000  March               211      3.4       186     3.0        1,227       1.1    1,117       1.0
      June                205      3.3       181     2.9        1,142       1.0    1,063       1.0
      September           212      3.4       199     3.2        1,166       1.1    1,167       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,144       1.0    1,120       1.0
  
2001  March               205      3.3       203     3.2        1,174       1.1    1,292       1.2
      June                204      3.2       205     3.3        1,151       1.0    1,236       1.1
      September           204      3.2       209     3.3        1,156       1.1    1,232       1.1
      December            197      3.1       200     3.2        1,121       1.0    1,150       1.1
  
2002  March               203      3.2       190     3.0        1,202       1.1    1,109       1.0
      June                209      3.3       186     2.9        1,192       1.1    1,086       1.0
      September           201      3.2       184     2.9        1,055       1.0    1,026       1.0
      December            203      3.2       191     3.0        1,026       1.0    1,028       1.0
  
2003  March               192      3.0       186     2.9          997        .9    1,007        .9
      June                192      3.0       186     2.9          965        .9      956        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          959        .9      884        .8
      December            201      3.1       179     2.8        1,010        .9      921        .9
  
2004  March               205      3.2       180     2.8          998        .9      914        .9
      June                202      3.1       184     2.8          982        .9      909        .8
      September           210      3.2       186     2.8        1,017        .9      955        .9
      December            212      3.2       181     2.7        1,001        .9      900        .8
  
2005  March               210      3.2       185     2.8          943        .9      850        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          952        .9      839        .8
      September           220      3.3       186     2.8          995        .9      886        .8
      December            224      3.3       188     2.8          980        .9      852        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       181     2.7          921        .8      739        .7
      June                220      3.2       194     2.8          975        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          926        .8      837        .7
      December            222      3.2       194     2.8          969        .9      815        .7
  
2007  March               212      3.1       193     2.8          890        .8      763        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          882        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          942        .8      845        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          909        .8      841        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      803        .7
      June                199      2.9       227     3.3          875        .8      936        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          829        .7      882        .8
      December            193      2.8       241     3.5          808        .7      958        .9
  
2009  March               171      2.5       N/A     N/A          697        .6      N/A       N/A
      June                177      2.6       N/A     N/A          740        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           169      2.5       N/A     N/A          695        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: May 20, 2010