Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release



Technical Information:  (202) 691-6553     USDL 09-0545
                http://www.bls.gov/bdm/

                                           For release: 10:00 A.M. EDT
Media Contact:          (202) 691-5902     Tuesday, May 19, 2009


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2008          


   From June 2008 to September 2008, the number of job gains from opening
and expanding private sector establishments was 6.8 million, and the
number of job losses from closing and contracting establishments was
7.8 million, according to data released today by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  (See tables A, 1 and 3.)
Over this period, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in all
but three industry sectors: natural resources and mining, utilities,
and education and health services.  (See tables B and 3.)


 --------------------------------------------------------------------
|          Additions to Business Employment Dynamics Data            |
|                                                                    |
|    Two new sets of Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data series  |
|are coming available with the release of third quarter 2008 data.   |
|New national series on total private sector births and deaths       |
|(number of establishments and employment) are included as a regular |
|feature of the news release. (See Table 7.)  New national series on |
|births and deaths by major industry sector are available at         |
|www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmind.htm, and new State series on total private   |
|sector births and deaths are at www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmstate.htm.       |
|    The other new BED series coming available is annual data, which |
|measure gross job gains and losses by comparing establishment       |
|employment for a month to establishment employment for the same     |
|month one year later.  Annual BED data are at                       |
|www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmann.htm and will be updated once a year with the |
|release of first quarter data.                                      |
 --------------------------------------------------------------------


   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data series include gross job
gains and gross job losses at the establishment level by major
industry sector and for the 50 states, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and
gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class.

   The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in
the economy.  BED statistics track these changes in employment at
private business units from the third month of one quarter to the
third month of the next.  Gross job gains are the sum of increases in
employment from expansions at existing units and the addition of new
jobs at opening units.  Gross job losses are the result of
contractions in employment at existing units and the loss of jobs at
closing units.  The difference between the number of gross jobs gained
and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.
(See the Technical Note for more information.)



Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses,
seasonally adjusted

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  |            3 months ended           
                                  |-------------------------------------
                                  | Sept. | Dec. | Mar. | June | Sept.  
           Category               | 2007  | 2007 | 2008 | 2008 | 2008   
                                  |-------------------------------------
                                  |         Levels (in thousands)       
----------------------------------|-------------------------------------
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Gross job gains...................|  7,323| 7,676| 7,130| 7,258| 6,822  
  At expanding establishments.....|  5,849| 6,220| 5,731| 5,858| 5,504  
  At opening establishments.......|  1,474| 1,456| 1,399| 1,400| 1,318  
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Gross job losses..................|  7,564| 7,366| 7,400| 7,751| 7,754  
  At contracting establishments...|  6,209| 6,010| 6,047| 6,277| 6,383  
  At closing establishments.......|  1,355| 1,356| 1,353| 1,474| 1,371  
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Net employment change (1).........|   -241|   310|  -270|  -493|  -932  
                                  |-------------------------------------
                                  |           Rates (percent)           
                                  |-------------------------------------
Gross job gains...................|    6.4|   6.8|   6.2|   6.4|   6.1  
  At expanding establishments.....|    5.1|   5.5|   5.0|   5.2|   4.9  
  At opening establishments.......|    1.3|   1.3|   1.2|   1.2|   1.2  
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Gross job losses..................|    6.7|   6.5|   6.5|   6.8|   6.9  
  At contracting establishments...|    5.5|   5.3|   5.3|   5.5|   5.7  
  At closing establishments.......|    1.2|   1.2|   1.2|   1.3|   1.2  
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Net employment change (1).........|    -.3|    .3|   -.3|   -.4|   -.8  
------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 The net employment change is the difference between total gross job
gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical Note for further
information.



Private Sector Establishment-Level Gross Job Gains and Gross Job Losses

   Opening and expanding private sector business establishments gained
6.8 million jobs in the third quarter of 2008, a decrease of 436,000
from the previous quarter.  Over the quarter, expanding establishments
added 5.5 million jobs while opening establishments added 1.3 million
jobs.

   Gross job losses totaled 7.8 million, an increase of 3,000 from the
previous quarter.  During the quarter, contracting establishments lost
6.4 million jobs, while closing establishments lost 1.4 million jobs.
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

   The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number
of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -932,000 jobs in the
private sector for third quarter 2008.

   Gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private sector employment,
while gross job losses represented 6.9 percent of private sector
employment.  (See tables A and 2.)

Major Industry Sector Gross Job Gains and Gross Job Losses

   From June 2008 to September 2008, gross job losses exceeded gross job
gains in all but three industry sectors: natural resources and mining,
utilities, and education and health services.  (See tables B and 3.)

   Goods-producing.  Expanding and opening establishments in the goods-
producing sectors accounted for 1,397,000 jobs gained, and contracting
and closing establishments accounted for 1,767,000 jobs lost.  This
net loss of 370,000 jobs results in the ninth consecutive quarter of
net loss for these sectors of the economy.

   Construction.  In construction, gross job gains fell over the quarter
to 698,000.  This is the lowest level of gross job gains since the first
quarter of 1993.  The construction sector experienced a net loss of
178,000 jobs, even though gross job losses decreased to 876,000.  This
is the sixth consecutive quarter of net job losses in this sector.

   Manufacturing.  Gross job gains fell to 425,000 while gross job
losses increased to 636,000.  The net loss of 211,000 jobs is the ninth
consecutive quarter of net job losses in the manufacturing sector.

   Service-providing.  In the service-providing sectors, gross job gains
decreased to 5,425,000 and gross job losses increased to 5,987,000,
resulting in a net loss of 562,000 jobs.  Job gains at expanding
establishments decreased to 4,319,000 jobs, while job losses at
contracting establishments increased to 4,890,000 jobs.

   Retail Trade.  In retail trade, gross job gains decreased to
892,000.  Gross job losses also decreased to 1,062,000 for a net loss of
170,000 jobs.  This is the largest net loss in this industry since the
series began in 1992, driven by the lowest total of gross job gains in
the history of this series.

   Education and Health Services.  Gross job gains increased slightly to
799,000 jobs in the third quarter, while gross job losses decreased to
706,000.  This industry sector is the only one which has experienced a
net positive change in every quarter since this series began in 1992.

   Financial Activities.  Gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in
the financial sector for the sixth consecutive quarter.  Gross job gains
fell to 376,000, while gross job losses increased to 460,000, resulting
in a net loss of 84,000 jobs in the third quarter.



Table B.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses by industry,
seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |       Gross job gains       |      Gross job losses       
                       |       (3 months ended)      |      (3 months ended)       
       Industry        |-----------------------------|-----------------------------
                       |Sept.|Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.|Sept.|Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.
                       |2007 |2007 |2008 |2008 |2008 |2007 |2007 |2008 |2008 |2008 
-----------------------|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----
                       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
  Total private (1)....|7,323|7,676|7,130|7,258|6,822|7,564|7,366|7,400|7,751|7,754
 Goods-Producing.......|1,504|1,573|1,493|1,494|1,397|1,725|1,701|1,758|1,778|1,767
  Natural resources    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    and mining.........|  262|  292|  274|  280|  274|  274|  261|  293|  268|  255
  Construction ........|  772|  784|  763|  737|  698|  882|  875|  869|  922|  876
  Manufacturing .......|  470|  497|  456|  477|  425|  569|  565|  596|  588|  636
 Service-Providing (1).|5,819|6,103|5,637|5,764|5,425|5,839|5,665|5,642|5,973|5,987
  Wholesale trade......|  310|  321|  294|  295|  272|  308|  301|  306|  314|  313
  Retail trade ........|1,007|1,022|  954|  939|  892|1,064|1,011|  979|1,080|1,062
  Transportation and   |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    warehousing........|  224|  254|  208|  225|  208|  233|  229|  250|  253|  250
  Utilities............|   14|   15|   13|   16|   14|   12|   11|   10|   12|   13
  Information..........|  155|  145|  154|  162|  135|  154|  155|  153|  161|	168
  Financial activities.|  418|  432|  412|  394|  376|  479|  486|  436|  455|	460
  Professional and     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    business services..|1,316|1,440|1,239|1,345|1,231|1,339|1,337|1,358|1,433|1,411
  Education and        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    health services....|  810|  814|  785|  788|  799|  685|  666|  667|  715|	706
  Leisure and          |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    hospitality........|1,179|1,247|1,158|1,183|1,114|1,224|1,148|1,154|1,218|1,259
  Other services.......|  293|  296|  290|  300|  280|  307|  287|  289|  293|	307
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately.



Number of Establishments Gaining and Losing Employment

   Another way to look at the dynamics of business activities is to
monitor the number and proportion of business units that are growing
and declining.  In the third quarter of 2008, the number of
establishments losing jobs exceeded the number of establishments
gaining jobs.

   Out of 7.0 million active private-sector establishments, a total of
1,987,000 establishments lost jobs from June 2008 to September 2008.
(See table C.)  Of these establishments, 1,608,000 were contracting
establishments and 379,000 were closing establishments.  Of the
establishments gaining jobs, 1,439,000 establishments were expanding
and 349,000 establishments were opening, resulting in 1,788,000
establishments gaining jobs.

   The number of closing establishments exceeded the number of opening
establishments, resulting in a net loss of 30,000 private-sector
establishments during the quarter.  This is the sixth quarter that there
has been a net decline in the number of establishments since 1992, and
the fourth time a decline has occurred in the past six quarters.



Table C.  Number of private sector establishments by direction of
employment change, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  |             3 months ended           
                                  |--------------------------------------
             Category             |  Sept.|  Dec. | Mar. | June | Sept.  
                                  |  2007 |  2007 | 2008 | 2008 | 2008   
----------------------------------|-------|-------|------|------|--------
Establishments gaining jobs.......|  1,901|  1,940| 1,874| 1,834| 1,788  
  Expanding establishments........|  1,525|  1,558| 1,517| 1,479| 1,439  
  Opening establishments..........|    376|    382|   357|   355|   349  
                                  |       |       |      |      |        
Establishments losing jobs........|  1,956|  1,935| 1,976| 2,024| 1,987  
  Contracting establishments......|  1,595|  1,575| 1,596| 1,633| 1,608  
  Closing establishments..........|    361|    360|   380|   391|   379  
                                  |       |       |      |      |        
Net establishment change (1)......|     15|     22|   -23|   -36|   -30  
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 The net establishment change is the difference between the number of
opening establishments and the number of closing establishments.  See the
Technical Note for further information.


Establishment Births and Deaths

   From June 2008 to September 2008, a total of 187,000 new private sector
non-farm businesses created 813,000 jobs, a drop of 8,000 births and
47,000 jobs from the previous quarter. The jobs created by these new
establishments represent 11.9 percent of total gross job gains. The
historical time series of birth data shows the number of establishment
births has remained around 200,000 every quarter, while employment from
births dropped from a high of 1.3 million in the first quarter 1998 to
813,000 in the third quarter of 2008. (See Table 7.)

Gross Job Gains and Losses by State

   In the third quarter of 2008, 7 states and the District of Columbia
experienced net employment growth, while 43 states, Puerto Rico, and the
Virgin Islands experienced net job losses.  The Virgin Islands and four
states: Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, and South Carolina showed
rates of gross job gains below the U.S. rate of 6.1 percent and rates
of gross job losses above the U.S. rate of 6.9 percent.  (See tables 5
and 6.)

Firm-level Gross Job Gains and Gross Job Losses by Size Class

   From June 2008 to September 2008, firms with 1 to 4 employees
experienced an increase in their share of gross job gains with 16.1
percent, and firms with 1,000 or more employees experienced an
increase in gross job losses with 19.3 percent.  (See tables D and 4.)


Table D.  Three-month private sector share (1) of gross job gains and losses by firm
size, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |   Share of gross job gains   |   Share of gross job losses  
                       |        (3 months ended)      |        (3 months ended)      
       Firm size       |------------------------------|------------------------------
                       | Sept.|Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.| Sept.|Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.
                       | 2007 |2007 |2008 |2008 |2008 | 2007 |2007 |2008 |2008 |2008 
-----------------------|------|-----|-----|-----|-----|------|-----|-----|-----|-----
                       |      |     |     |     |     |      |     |     |     |     
   1  -   4 employees..|  16.2| 15.6| 16.2| 15.4| 16.1|  15.8| 16.0| 16.7| 15.9| 15.2
   5  -   9 employees..|  12.2| 11.4| 12.4| 11.8| 12.0|  12.1| 12.3| 12.4| 11.9| 11.3
  10  -  19 employees..|  12.2| 11.6| 12.6| 12.1| 12.2|  12.3| 12.4| 12.4| 12.0| 11.6
  20  -  49 employees..|  14.3| 13.8| 14.7| 14.4| 14.2|  14.5| 14.4| 14.3| 13.9| 13.9
  50  -  99 employees..|   8.9|  8.7|  9.1|  9.1|  9.0|   8.9|  8.9|  8.7|  8.6|  8.7
 100  - 249 employees..|   9.2|  9.3|  9.4|  9.7|  9.4|   9.4|  9.1|  8.9|  8.9|  9.3
 250  - 499 employees..|   5.6|  5.5|  5.6|  5.6|  5.7|   5.5|  5.3|  5.3|  5.4|  5.5
 500  - 999 employees..|   4.6|  4.5|  4.4|  4.6|  4.6|   4.5|  4.5|  4.2|  4.7|  4.7
1,000 or more employees|  16.4| 19.1| 15.2| 16.8| 16.2|  16.6| 16.7| 16.8| 18.2| 19.3
                       |      |     |     |     |     |      |     |     |     |     
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 Shares measure the percent of the category represented by firm size,
     and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.



More Information

   Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information includes
data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by
firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked
questions on firm-size data.  Additional information about the
Business Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note
of this release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.


 ------------------------------------------------------------------
|     Comparing Business Employment Dynamics Data with Current     |
|     Employment Statistics and Quarterly Census of Employment     |
|                           and Wages Data                         |
|                                                                  |
|    The net change in employment from Business Employment         |
| Dynamics (BED) data series will not match the net change in      |
| employment from the monthly Current Employment Statistics (CES)  |
| survey.  The CES estimates are based on monthly surveys from a   |
| sample of establishments, while gross job gains and gross job    |
| losses are based on a quarterly census of administrative records.|
| In addition, the CES has a different coverage, excluding the     |
| agriculture sector but including establishments not covered by   |
| the unemployment insurance program.  The net over-the-quarter    |
| changes derived by aggregating component series in the BED data  |
| may be different from the net employment change estimated from   |
| the CES seasonally adjusted total employment series.  The in-    |
| tended use of the BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor    |
| market flows that underlie the net changes in aggregate employ-  |
| ment levels; data users who want to track net changes in aggre-  |
| gate employment levels over time should refer to CES data.       |
|                                                                  |
|    BED data have a more limited scope than the Quarterly Census  |
| of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data.  The data in this release,  |
| in contrast to the QCEW data, exclude government employees,      |
| private households (NAICS 814110), and establishments with zero  |
| employment.                                                      |
|                                                                  |
|    See the Technical Note for further information.               |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 


                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  400,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.0    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.0 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the third quarter of 2008.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the third 
quarter of 2008:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.6
               Zero employment.......................................1.2      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 
         
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.0

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third-month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third-month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third-month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an estblishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1992  September            599      7,329       5,688         1,641       6,730       5,308           1,422
      December             123      6,986       5,452         1,534       6,863       5,484           1,379

1993  March                288      7,117       5,404         1,713       6,829       5,364           1,465
      June                 734      7,275       5,782         1,493       6,541       5,155           1,386
      September            965      7,539       5,926         1,613       6,574       5,265           1,309
      December             603      7,375       5,822         1,553       6,772       5,411           1,361

1994  March                559      7,381       5,800         1,581       6,822       5,401           1,421
      June                 905      7,709       6,041         1,668       6,804       5,315           1,489
      September          1,288      8,002       6,277         1,725       6,714       5,426           1,288
      December             460      7,535       5,978         1,557       7,075       5,642           1,433

1995  March                758      7,787       6,124         1,663       7,029       5,652           1,377
      June                 358      7,666       6,006         1,660       7,308       5,840           1,468
      September            845      7,983       6,341         1,642       7,138       5,645           1,493
      December             378      7,830       6,140         1,690       7,452       5,929           1,523

1996  March                457      7,933       6,179         1,754       7,476       5,967           1,509
      June                 631      8,051       6,282         1,769       7,420       5,903           1,517
      September            704      8,177       6,373         1,804       7,473       5,942           1,531
      December             816      8,206       6,396         1,810       7,390       5,875           1,515

1997  March                784      8,214       6,407         1,807       7,430       5,886           1,544
      June                 584      8,055       6,330         1,725       7,471       5,931           1,540
      September            901      8,515       6,718         1,797       7,614       5,927           1,687
      December             708      8,617       6,697         1,920       7,909       6,024           1,885

1998  March                711      8,648       6,599         2,049       7,937       6,077           1,860
      June                 610      8,629       6,552         2,077       8,019       6,224           1,795
      September            742      8,508       6,607         1,901       7,766       6,093           1,673
      December             768      8,475       6,737         1,738       7,707       6,025           1,682

1999  March                353      8,585       6,626         1,959       8,232       6,395           1,837
      June                 644      8,539       6,661         1,878       7,895       6,210           1,685
      September            588      8,571       6,734         1,837       7,983       6,250           1,733
      December           1,005      8,749       6,956         1,793       7,744       6,076           1,668

2000  March                789      8,792       6,924         1,868       8,003       6,341           1,662
      June                 492      8,499       6,814         1,685       8,007       6,387           1,620
      September            296      8,506       6,728         1,778       8,210       6,483           1,727
      December             295      8,400       6,702         1,698       8,105       6,433           1,672

2001  March               -156      8,436       6,694         1,742       8,592       6,717           1,875
      June                -792      8,009       6,319         1,690       8,801       7,050           1,751
      September         -1,184      7,608       5,917         1,691       8,792       6,991           1,801
      December            -960      7,591       5,932         1,659       8,551       6,858           1,693

2002  March                -39      8,049       6,259         1,790       8,088       6,424           1,664
      June                 -38      7,890       6,164         1,726       7,928       6,290           1,638
      September           -171      7,608       6,015         1,593       7,779       6,248           1,531
      December            -198      7,522       5,960         1,562       7,720       6,171           1,549

2003  March               -412      7,439       5,917         1,522       7,851       6,311           1,540
      June                -104      7,401       5,928         1,473       7,505       6,040           1,465
      September            204      7,383       5,918         1,465       7,179       5,818           1,361
      December             309      7,549       6,016         1,533       7,240       5,802           1,438

2004  March                450      7,683       6,189         1,494       7,233       5,799           1,434
      June                 631      7,760       6,234         1,526       7,129       5,648           1,481
      September            215      7,630       6,057         1,573       7,415       5,877           1,538
      December             781      7,872       6,256         1,616       7,091       5,660           1,431

2005  March                363      7,595       6,123         1,472       7,232       5,806           1,426
      June                 585      7,783       6,231         1,552       7,198       5,785           1,413
      September            680      7,962       6,387         1,575       7,282       5,834           1,448
      December             516      7,833       6,263         1,570       7,317       5,945           1,372

2006  March                787      7,697       6,278         1,419       6,910       5,635           1,275
      June                 410      7,795       6,274         1,521       7,385       6,009           1,376
      September             36      7,488       6,052         1,436       7,452       6,099           1,353
      December             492      7,801       6,262         1,539       7,309       5,953           1,356

2007  March                470      7,627       6,228         1,399       7,157       5,872           1,285
      June                 192      7,665       6,250         1,415       7,473       6,066           1,407
      September           -241      7,323       5,849         1,474       7,564       6,209           1,355
      December             310      7,676       6,220         1,456       7,366       6,010           1,356

2008  March               -270      7,130       5,731         1,399       7,400       6,047           1,353
      June                -493      7,258       5,858         1,400       7,751       6,277           1,474
      September           -932      6,822       5,504         1,318       7,754       6,383           1,371

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1992  September             .7       8.2         6.4           1.8         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .2       7.8         6.1           1.7         7.6          6.1            1.5

1993  March                 .3       7.9         6.0           1.9         7.6          6.0            1.6
      June                  .8       8.0         6.4           1.6         7.2          5.7            1.5
      September            1.1       8.3         6.5           1.8         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December              .6       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4          5.9            1.5

1994  March                 .7       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                 1.0       8.3         6.5           1.8         7.3          5.7            1.6
      September            1.3       8.4         6.6           1.8         7.1          5.7            1.4
      December              .5       7.9         6.3           1.6         7.4          5.9            1.5

1995  March                 .8       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.3          5.9            1.4
      June                  .3       7.9         6.2           1.7         7.6          6.1            1.5
      September             .9       8.2         6.5           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      December              .3       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.7          6.1            1.6

1996  March                 .5       8.1         6.3           1.8         7.6          6.1            1.5
      June                  .7       8.2         6.4           1.8         7.5          6.0            1.5
      September             .7       8.2         6.4           1.8         7.5          6.0            1.5
      December              .8       8.2         6.4           1.8         7.4          5.9            1.5

1997  March                 .9       8.2         6.4           1.8         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .6       7.9         6.2           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            1.0       8.4         6.6           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December              .8       8.4         6.5           1.9         7.6          5.8            1.8

1998  March                 .7       8.4         6.4           2.0         7.7          5.9            1.8
      June                  .6       8.3         6.3           2.0         7.7          6.0            1.7
      September             .7       8.1         6.3           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December              .7       8.0         6.4           1.6         7.3          5.7            1.6

1999  March                 .3       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.7          6.0            1.7
      June                  .6       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      September             .6       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December             1.0       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.1          5.6            1.5

2000  March                 .7       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .3       7.6         6.1           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.2       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.1          6.4            1.7
      December             -.9       7.0         5.5           1.5         7.9          6.3            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.8           1.7         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December              .0       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.1          5.7            1.4

2003  March                -.4       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.3          5.9            1.4
      June                 -.1       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.1          5.7            1.4
      September             .2       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .3       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .5       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.4       6.4         5.2           1.2         6.8          5.5            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage of the average
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept.   Dec.    March   June    Sept.  Sept.  Dec.   March  June   Sept. 
                                   2007    2007    2008    2008    2008   2007   2007   2008   2008   2008
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,323   7,676   7,130   7,258   6,822    6.4    6.8    6.2    6.4    6.1
 At expanding establishments      5,849   6,220   5,731   5,858   5,504    5.1    5.5    5.0    5.2    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,474   1,456   1,399   1,400   1,318    1.3    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  7,564   7,366   7,400   7,751   7,754    6.7    6.5    6.5    6.8    6.9
 At contracting establishments    6,209   6,010   6,047   6,277   6,383    5.5    5.3    5.3    5.5    5.7
 At closing establishments        1,355   1,356   1,353   1,474   1,371    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.2
Net employment change              -241     310    -270    -493    -932    -.3     .3    -.3    -.4    -.8

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,504   1,573   1,493   1,494   1,397    6.4    6.8    6.5    6.6    6.2
 At expanding establishments      1,262   1,337   1,258   1,268   1,185    5.4    5.8    5.5    5.6    5.3
 At opening establishments          242     236     235     226     212    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                  1,725   1,701   1,758   1,778   1,767    7.5    7.4    7.6    7.8    7.9
 At contracting establishments    1,455   1,424   1,481   1,486   1,493    6.3    6.2    6.4    6.5    6.7
 At closing establishments          270     277     277     292     274    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.2
Net employment change              -221    -128    -265    -284    -370   -1.1    -.6   -1.1   -1.2   -1.7

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     262     292     274     280     274   14.4   15.8   14.5   14.9   14.6
 At expanding establishments        224     250     234     242     239   12.3   13.5   12.4   12.9   12.7
 At opening establishments           38      42      40      38      35    2.1    2.3    2.1    2.0    1.9
Gross job losses                    274     261     293     268     255   15.1   14.1   15.5   14.3   13.6
 At contracting establishments      233     224     251     228     221   12.8   12.1   13.3   12.2   11.8
 At closing establishments           41      37      42      40      34    2.3    2.0    2.2    2.1    1.8
Net employment change               -12      31     -19      12      19    -.7    1.7   -1.0     .6    1.0

Construction

Gross job gains                     772     784     763     737     698   10.2   10.5   10.2   10.1    9.8
 At expanding establishments        616     634     614     593     560    8.1    8.5    8.2    8.1    7.9
 At opening establishments          156     150     149     144     138    2.1    2.0    2.0    2.0    1.9
Gross job losses                    882     875     869     922     876   11.7   11.7   11.7   12.6   12.4
 At contracting establishments      715     702     698     738     700    9.5    9.4    9.4   10.1    9.9
 At closing establishments          167     173     171     184     176    2.2    2.3    2.3    2.5    2.5
Net employment change              -110     -91    -106    -185    -178   -1.5   -1.2   -1.5   -2.5   -2.6

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     470     497     456     477     425    3.3    3.6    3.3    3.5    3.2
 At expanding establishments        422     453     410     433     386    3.0    3.3    3.0    3.2    2.9
 At opening establishments           48      44      46      44      39     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    569     565     596     588     636    4.1    4.1    4.4    4.3    4.8
 At contracting establishments      507     498     532     520     572    3.7    3.6    3.9    3.8    4.3
 At closing establishments           62      67      64      68      64     .4     .5     .5     .5     .5
Net employment change               -99     -68    -140    -111    -211    -.8    -.5   -1.1    -.8   -1.6

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,819   6,103   5,637   5,764   5,425    6.5    6.7    6.2    6.3    6.0
 At expanding establishments      4,587   4,883   4,473   4,590   4,319    5.1    5.4    4.9    5.0    4.8
 At opening establishments        1,232   1,220   1,164   1,174   1,106    1.4    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,839   5,665   5,642   5,973   5,987    6.4    6.3    6.2    6.6    6.6
 At contracting establishments    4,754   4,586   4,566   4,791   4,890    5.2    5.1    5.0    5.3    5.4
 At closing establishments        1,085   1,079   1,076   1,182   1,097    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.2
Net employment change               -20     438      -5    -209    -562     .1     .4     .0    -.3    -.6

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     310     321     294     295     272    5.1    5.4    4.9    4.9    4.5
 At expanding establishments        248     263     238     239     223    4.1    4.4    4.0    4.0    3.7
 At opening establishments           62      58      56      56      49    1.0    1.0     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    308     301     306     314     313    5.2    5.0    5.1    5.3    5.2
 At contracting establishments      244     232     239     243     247    4.1    3.9    4.0    4.1    4.1
 At closing establishments           64      69      67      71      66    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1
Net employment change                 2      20     -12     -19     -41    -.1     .4    -.2    -.4    -.7

Retail trade

Gross job gains                   1,007   1,022     954     939     892    6.5    6.6    6.2    6.0    5.8
 At expanding establishments        821     870     804     785     736    5.3    5.6    5.2    5.0    4.8
 At opening establishments          186     152     150     154     156    1.2    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,064   1,011     979   1,080   1,062    6.8    6.5    6.3    6.9    6.9
 At contracting establishments      926     871     846     935     923    5.9    5.6    5.4    6.0    6.0
 At closing establishments          138     140     133     145     139     .9     .9     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change               -57      11     -25    -141    -170    -.3     .1    -.1    -.9   -1.1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     224     254     208     225     208    5.2    5.8    4.8    5.2    4.8
 At expanding establishments        190     219     177     193     178    4.4    5.0    4.1    4.5    4.1
 At opening establishments           34      35      31      32      30     .8     .8     .7     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    233     229     250     253     250    5.4    5.3    5.8    5.9    5.9
 At contracting establishments      194     189     216     210     209    4.5    4.4    5.0    4.9    4.9
 At closing establishments           39      40      34      43      41     .9     .9     .8    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                -9      25     -42     -28     -42    -.2     .5   -1.0    -.7   -1.1

Utilities

Gross job gains                      14      15      13      16      14    2.6    2.8    2.4    2.9    2.5
 At expanding establishments         13      13      11      14      13    2.4    2.4    2.0    2.5    2.3
 At opening establishments            1       2       2       2       1     .2     .4     .4     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     12      11      10      12      13    2.2    2.0    1.8    2.2    2.3
 At contracting establishments       10      10       9      10      12    1.8    1.8    1.6    1.8    2.1
 At closing establishments            2       1       1       2       1     .4     .2     .2     .4     .2
Net employment change                 2       4       3       4       1     .4     .8     .6     .7     .2

Information

Gross job gains                     155     145     154     162     135    5.1    4.7    5.1    5.4    4.5
 At expanding establishments        127     117     129     139     111    4.2    3.8    4.3    4.6    3.7
 At opening establishments           28      28      25      23      24     .9     .9     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    154     155     153     161     168    5.0    5.1    5.1    5.4    5.6
 At contracting establishments      129     126     123     126     142    4.2    4.1    4.1    4.2    4.7
 At closing establishments           25      29      30      35      26     .8    1.0    1.0    1.2     .9
Net employment change                 1     -10       1       1     -33     .1    -.4     .0     .0   -1.1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     418     432     412     394     376    5.1    5.3    5.1    4.9    4.7
 At expanding establishments        322     332     324     310     293    3.9    4.1    4.0    3.9    3.7
 At opening establishments           96     100      88      84      83    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                    479     486     436     455     460    5.8    6.0    5.4    5.7    5.7
 At contracting establishments      362     368     323     345     353    4.4    4.5    4.0    4.3    4.4
 At closing establishments          117     118     113     110     107    1.4    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.3
Net employment change               -61     -54     -24     -61     -84    -.7    -.7    -.3    -.8   -1.0

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,316   1,440   1,239   1,345   1,231    7.4    8.0    6.8    7.5    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,053   1,158     998   1,073     994    5.9    6.4    5.5    6.0    5.6
 At opening establishments          263     282     241     272     237    1.5    1.6    1.3    1.5    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,339   1,337   1,358   1,433   1,411    7.5    7.5    7.6    8.1    7.9
 At contracting establishments    1,075   1,072   1,094   1,100   1,138    6.0    6.0    6.1    6.2    6.4
 At closing establishments          264     265     264     333     273    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.9    1.5
Net employment change               -23     103    -119     -88    -180    -.1     .5    -.8    -.6   -1.0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     810     814     785     788     799    4.7    4.6    4.4    4.4    4.5
 At expanding establishments        678     695     661     673     681    3.9    3.9    3.7    3.8    3.8
 At opening establishments          132     119     124     115     118     .8     .7     .7     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    685     666     667     715     706    3.9    3.7    3.8    4.0    4.0
 At contracting establishments      568     552     551     587     588    3.2    3.1    3.1    3.3    3.3
 At closing establishments          117     114     116     128     118     .7     .6     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change               125     148     118      73      93     .8     .9     .6     .4     .5

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,179   1,247   1,158   1,183   1,114    8.9    9.3    8.6    8.7    8.3
 At expanding establishments        891     961     879     908     854    6.7    7.2    6.5    6.7    6.4
 At opening establishments          288     286     279     275     260    2.2    2.1    2.1    2.0    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,224   1,148   1,154   1,218   1,259    9.1    8.5    8.6    9.1    9.4
 At contracting establishments      993     931     930     993   1,023    7.4    6.9    6.9    7.4    7.6
 At closing establishments          231     217     224     225     236    1.7    1.6    1.7    1.7    1.8
Net employment change               -45      99       4     -35    -145    -.2     .8     .0    -.4   -1.1

Other services

Gross job gains                     293     296     290     300     280    7.5    7.6    7.5    7.7    7.1
 At expanding establishments        230     238     233     238     221    5.9    6.1    6.0    6.1    5.6
 At opening establishments           63      58      57      62      59    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.6    1.5
Gross job losses                    307     287     289     293     307    7.8    7.3    7.4    7.5    7.8
 At contracting establishments      243     224     224     228     243    6.2    5.7    5.7    5.8    6.2
 At closing establishments           64      63      65      65      64    1.6    1.6    1.7    1.7    1.6
Net employment change               -14       9       1       7     -27    -.3     .3     .1     .2    -.7

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              Sept. 2007     Dec.  2007      March 2008      June  2008      Sept. 2008


Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   16.2            15.6            16.2            15.4            16.1
   Expanding firms............    7.5             7.2             7.7             7.3             7.6
   Opening firms..............   59.4            61.5            58.9            58.9            60.6
Gross job losses..............   15.8            16.0            16.7            15.9            15.2
   Contracting firms..........    7.7             8.0             8.1             7.6             7.2
   Closing firms..............   60.1            59.6            60.9            61.0            60.6

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.2            11.4            12.4            11.8            12.0
   Expanding firms............   11.3            10.7            11.6            10.9            11.2
   Opening firms..............   16.4            15.5            16.5            16.6            16.3
Gross job losses..............   12.1            12.3            12.4            11.9            11.3
   Contracting firms..........   11.3            11.5            11.7            11.1            10.5
   Closing firms..............   16.1            16.2            15.9            16.0            16.0

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.2            11.6            12.6            12.1            12.2
   Expanding firms............   12.5            11.9            12.9            12.3            12.5
   Opening firms..............   10.7            10.1            11.0            11.1            10.6
Gross job losses..............   12.3            12.4            12.4            12.0            11.6
   Contracting firms..........   12.7            12.6            12.8            12.3            11.8
   Closing firms..............   10.5            10.8            10.2            10.4            10.3

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   14.3            13.8            14.7            14.4            14.2
   Expanding firms............   15.6            14.9            16.1            15.6            15.5
   Opening firms..............    7.7             7.7             7.8             8.4             7.7
Gross job losses..............   14.5            14.4            14.3            13.9            13.9
   Contracting firms..........   15.7            15.6            15.6            15.2            15.0
   Closing firms..............    7.9             8.0             7.5             7.4             7.7

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    8.9             8.7             9.1             9.1             9.0
   Expanding firms............   10.1             9.8            10.4            10.2            10.2
   Opening firms..............    2.8             2.8             2.7             2.8             2.8
Gross job losses..............    8.9             8.9             8.7             8.6             8.7
   Contracting firms..........   10.0            10.0             9.9             9.7             9.7
   Closing firms..............    2.7             2.9             2.8             2.6             2.6

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.2             9.3             9.4             9.7             9.4
   Expanding firms............   10.8            10.7            11.1            11.2            11.0
   Opening firms..............    1.5             1.3             1.3             1.3             1.2
Gross job losses..............    9.4             9.1             8.9             8.9             9.3
   Contracting firms..........   10.8            10.4            10.3            10.3            10.7
   Closing firms..............    1.6             1.6             1.5             1.5             1.4

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.6             5.5             5.6             5.6             5.7
   Expanding firms............    6.6             6.5             6.6             6.6             6.8
   Opening firms..............     .5              .3              .4              .4              .3
Gross job losses..............    5.5             5.3             5.3             5.4             5.5
   Contracting firms..........    6.4             6.2             6.2             6.4             6.4
   Closing firms..............     .5              .5              .4              .4              .5

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.6             4.5             4.4             4.6             4.6
   Expanding firms............    5.5             5.3             5.2             5.5             5.5
   Opening firms..............     .2              .2              .3              .2              .1
Gross job losses..............    4.5             4.5             4.2             4.7             4.7
   Contracting firms..........    5.3             5.3             4.9             5.5             5.5
   Closing firms..............     .2              .1              .2              .2              .3

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   16.4            19.1            15.2            16.8            16.2
   Expanding firms............   19.6            22.6            18.1            19.9            19.3
   Opening firms..............     .5              .2              .7              .0              .0
Gross job losses..............   16.6            16.7            16.8            18.2            19.3
   Contracting firms..........   19.7            19.8            20.1            21.5            22.7
   Closing firms..............     .0              .0              .2              .2              .3


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.

Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       March       June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       March       June      Sept.
                        2007       2007       2008        2008      2008       2007         2007       2008        2008      2008

United States1.....  7,323,000  7,676,000  7,130,000   7,258,000  6,822,000  7,564,000   7,366,000   7,400,000  7,751,000  7,754,000

Alabama.....           101,828    107,871     96,431      92,858     94,018    103,535     104,544     102,216    103,750    106,097
Alaska.....             22,638     24,875     24,026      27,326     23,290     26,359      26,209      21,293     23,152     25,878
Arizona.....           157,479    157,454    131,093     135,186    136,644    159,009     173,557     157,425    169,011    160,041
Arkansas.....           56,555     60,518     57,573      55,808     59,307     57,918      57,447      55,687     61,899     60,203
California.....        914,523    991,318    883,486     924,534    823,743    946,834     917,701     970,184    992,365    968,431
Colorado.....          148,802    147,704    144,403     142,518    136,670    145,775     142,396     139,549    143,312    148,638
Connecticut.....        78,985     84,896     75,774      81,956     74,507     83,429      82,717      75,913     79,403     86,469
Delaware.....           23,562     26,057     22,843      22,931     23,365     27,512      23,286      23,490     26,415     29,015
District of Columbia    26,552     26,858     27,668      29,566     27,587     28,084      26,855      24,968     26,545     26,265
Florida.....           495,029    503,784    462,893     456,432    437,465    557,640     557,019     508,941    559,962    548,854

Georgia.....           244,518    246,217    241,910     235,469    223,052    242,518     257,581     248,694    265,860    259,344
Hawaii.....             26,953     27,626     27,444      26,659     24,608     30,063      26,283      28,861     35,007     34,248
Idaho.....              42,078     46,957     43,825      40,999     41,167     45,607      42,462      47,387     48,725     46,527
Illinois.....          269,396    289,963    257,263     279,798    251,615    289,684     284,241     277,394    274,501    293,498
Indiana.....           145,385    147,408    128,823     148,823    142,552    154,035     152,272     151,313    156,699    160,977
Iowa.....               74,297     76,423     75,913      75,492     72,202     76,519      72,570      75,739     77,074     75,503
Kansas.....             74,748     72,455     85,756      73,245     66,962     67,156      72,803      76,089     76,424     75,491
Kentucky.....           87,033     98,760     89,802      92,385     82,716     96,077      91,580      94,167     94,347     98,439
Louisiana.....         110,325    114,566    105,843     106,666    101,375    107,897     102,061     101,310    110,348    117,794
Maine.....              37,699     39,812     35,386      39,310     35,228     40,136      36,533      38,311     38,951     42,054

Maryland.....          136,821    133,972    129,204     130,724    127,690    138,112     137,186     132,403    144,023    142,439
Massachusetts.....     167,840    163,903    156,011     170,476    151,905    175,531     169,769     152,572    161,310    172,780
Michigan.....          225,991    226,325    207,642     227,833    205,970    246,215     249,067     242,937    245,121    263,868
Minnesota.....         151,427    140,089    139,026     141,178    131,850    140,365     143,481     142,695    144,422    145,373
Mississippi.....        62,592     65,791     57,582      55,524     54,090     58,456      57,571      58,523     68,125     66,097
Missouri.....          146,395    138,451    137,642     142,593    133,936    144,782     141,379     139,452    147,646    144,905
Montana.....            29,111     32,517     30,702      27,908     27,599     29,363      28,468      30,160     31,601     28,770
Nebraska.....           48,569     47,931     46,332      44,468     45,474     44,276      47,536      42,107     47,868     45,394
Nevada.....             69,323     85,876     76,077      71,885     66,270     82,736      77,350      85,232     84,034     86,950
New Hampshire.....      36,282     39,237     35,433      38,576     34,837     39,787      38,422      37,137     38,970     38,872

New Jersey.....        216,092    227,637    202,756     230,667    196,277    234,703     218,322     213,561    225,045    234,424
New Mexico.....         46,822     47,752     44,333      43,833     44,736     47,911      44,620      41,459     47,977     45,529
New York.....          447,389    492,874    435,576     471,669    440,884    463,652     439,494     450,588    466,336    470,365
North Carolina.....    224,225    233,942    222,100     207,441    206,032    223,101     217,800     221,137    237,807    240,101
North Dakota.....       19,566     20,281     21,771      19,325     20,897     17,948      17,305      17,438     18,918     18,489
Ohio.....              253,718    270,727    243,918     271,662    245,865    282,838     274,342     283,287    273,471    281,477
Oklahoma.....           82,213     80,007     86,731      81,885     80,037     76,306      77,962      72,919     80,295     77,491
Oregon.....            102,187    107,206     97,406      89,219     97,615    100,470     103,814     100,289    110,881     98,568
Pennsylvania.....      269,675    289,282    267,831     287,681    267,451    288,146     275,587     274,187    282,520    290,479
Rhode Island.....       23,395     25,807     23,562      26,773     24,724     29,596      28,218      26,635     27,873     28,605

South Carolina.....     99,461    103,048     99,070      92,276     87,937    100,979     105,799     100,963    107,813    108,041
South Dakota.....       20,782     21,382     21,942      21,298     21,110     20,340      20,270      19,382     21,663     20,789
Tennessee.....         142,360    141,888    133,791     131,679    126,191    141,564     133,361     138,012    150,958    158,301
Texas.....             538,336    568,802    535,846     529,866    499,414    504,337     487,640     484,274    520,811    533,886
Utah.....               74,231     81,880     71,826      70,125     67,227     76,234      75,317      71,419     77,237     73,222
Vermont.....            19,066     20,368     17,728      18,395     17,109     20,052      18,694      19,372     18,709     19,096
Virginia.....          178,420    184,806    186,117     185,464    176,537    191,182     186,717     181,561    190,261    198,251
Washington.....        169,948    185,367    185,681     160,249    172,149    175,505     164,540     167,911    188,699    163,055
West Virginia.....      36,543     40,109     36,735      35,116     38,356     38,839      36,420      37,112     37,914     36,140
Wisconsin.....         129,879    136,739    133,678     138,886    129,435    144,564     135,453     136,642    144,751    150,913

Wyoming.....            21,394     23,500     23,351      19,438     21,024     19,945      18,010      19,803     23,122     18,684
Puerto Rico.....        52,534     49,548     43,097      43,855     42,205     50,788      49,977      56,195     52,124     47,635
Virgin Islands.....      2,401      2,261      2,193       2,119      1,927      3,189       2,234       2,157      2,482      2,302

(1) The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of independent seasonal adjustment of each state.
NOTE: Total for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     March    June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      March   June     Sept.
                        2007    2007     2008     2008    2008        2007     2007      2008    2008     2008

United States......      6.4     6.8      6.2      6.4     6.1         6.7      6.5       6.5      6.8     6.9

Alabama.....             6.3     6.8      6.0      5.9     5.9         6.5      6.5       6.5      6.6     6.7
Alaska.....              9.6    10.6     10.2     11.5     9.7        11.3     11.2       9.0      9.7    10.8
Arizona.....             7.0     7.0      5.9      6.2     6.3         7.0      7.7       7.1      7.7     7.3
Arkansas.....            5.8     6.2      5.8      5.7     6.1         5.9      5.8       5.7      6.3     6.2
California.....          7.0     7.7      6.8      7.2     6.5         7.3      7.0       7.5      7.7     7.6
Colorado.....            7.7     7.6      7.4      7.3     7.0         7.5      7.3       7.1      7.3     7.7
Connecticut.....         5.5     5.9      5.3      5.7     5.2         5.8      5.7       5.3      5.5     6.0
Delaware.....            6.5     7.1      6.2      6.3     6.5         7.6      6.4       6.4      7.3     8.0
District of Columbia..   6.0     6.0      6.2      6.6     6.1         6.3      6.1       5.6      5.9     5.8
Florida.....             7.1     7.4      6.8      6.8     6.6         8.1      8.1       7.5      8.4     8.3

Georgia.....             7.2     7.3      7.1      7.0     6.7         7.1      7.5       7.3      7.9     7.7
Hawaii.....              5.3     5.4      5.4      5.3     4.9         5.9      5.2       5.7      6.9     6.9
Idaho.....               7.6     8.5      8.0      7.5     7.6         8.3      7.7       8.6      8.9     8.6
Illinois.....            5.3     5.7      5.0      5.5     5.0         5.7      5.6       5.4      5.4     5.8
Indiana.....             5.8     5.9      5.2      6.0     5.7         6.1      6.0       6.1      6.3     6.6
Iowa.....                5.9     6.1      6.0      6.0     5.7         6.1      5.8       6.0      6.1     6.1
Kansas.....              6.7     6.5      7.7      6.5     6.0         6.1      6.6       6.7      6.8     6.7
Kentucky.....            5.8     6.6      5.9      6.1     5.6         6.4      6.1       6.3      6.3     6.6
Louisiana.....           7.3     7.4      6.9      6.9     6.6         7.0      6.7       6.5      7.1     7.7
Maine.....               7.5     8.0      7.0      7.8     7.0         8.0      7.3       7.6      7.8     8.4

Maryland.....            6.5     6.4      6.2      6.3     6.2         6.7      6.6       6.4      7.0     6.9
Massachusetts.....       6.0     5.9      5.6      6.0     5.4         6.3      6.1       5.5      5.8     6.2
Michigan.....            6.3     6.4      5.9      6.5     5.9         6.9      7.0       6.9      6.9     7.6
Minnesota.....           6.5     6.0      6.0      6.1     5.7         6.1      6.2       6.1      6.2     6.3
Mississippi.....         7.0     7.3      6.3      6.2     6.1         6.5      6.4       6.5      7.6     7.4
Missouri.....            6.4     6.0      6.0      6.2     5.9         6.3      6.2       6.1      6.4     6.4
Montana.....             8.2     9.0      8.5      7.8     7.7         8.2      8.0       8.4      8.8     8.1
Nebraska.....            6.4     6.3      6.0      5.8     6.0         5.8      6.2       5.5      6.2     6.0
Nevada.....              6.1     7.6      6.7      6.5     6.0         7.3      6.8       7.6      7.6     8.0
New Hampshire.....       6.6     7.2      6.5      7.1     6.4         7.3      7.1       6.8      7.2     7.2

New Jersey.....          6.4     6.8      6.1      6.9     5.9         7.0      6.5       6.3      6.7     7.0
New Mexico.....          7.3     7.5      6.9      6.8     7.0         7.5      7.0       6.5      7.5     7.2
New York.....            6.3     6.9      6.1      6.6     6.1         6.5      6.2       6.3      6.5     6.5
North Carolina.....      6.6     6.8      6.5      6.1     6.1         6.6      6.4       6.5      7.0     7.2
North Dakota.....        7.1     7.2      7.7      6.8     7.3         6.5      6.2       6.1      6.7     6.4
Ohio.....                5.5     6.0      5.4      6.1     5.5         6.2      6.1       6.3      6.0     6.2
Oklahoma.....            6.8     6.5      7.0      6.6     6.4         6.2      6.4       5.9      6.5     6.2
Oregon.....              7.0     7.3      6.7      6.2     6.8         6.9      7.1       6.9      7.7     6.9
Pennsylvania.....        5.5     5.8      5.4      5.8     5.4         5.8      5.6       5.6      5.7     5.9
Rhode Island.....        5.6     6.2      5.7      6.5     6.1         7.0      6.8       6.4      6.8     7.0

South Carolina.....      6.3     6.6      6.3      5.9     5.7         6.5      6.7       6.5      6.9     7.1
South Dakota.....        6.4     6.6      6.7      6.5     6.5         6.3      6.2       5.9      6.7     6.4
Tennessee.....           6.1     6.1      5.7      5.7     5.5         6.0      5.7       5.8      6.5     6.9
Texas.....               6.3     6.7      6.1      6.1     5.8         5.9      5.6       5.6      6.0     6.2
Utah.....                7.2     7.9      7.0      6.8     6.6         7.4      7.3       6.9      7.5     7.1
Vermont.....             7.6     8.2      7.0      7.4     6.9         8.0      7.5       7.7      7.4     7.7
Virginia.....            6.0     6.1      6.2      6.2     5.9         6.3      6.2       6.0      6.3     6.6
Washington.....          7.1     7.7      7.6      6.7     7.2         7.3      6.8       7.0      7.8     6.8
West Virginia.....       6.4     7.0      6.4      6.2     6.8         6.8      6.3       6.5      6.6     6.3
Wisconsin.....           5.4     5.7      5.6      5.8     5.4         6.0      5.7       5.7      6.1     6.4

Wyoming.....             9.9    10.8     10.5      8.7     9.5         9.3      8.2       8.9     10.4     8.4
Puerto Rico.....         7.1     6.7      5.9      6.1     5.9         6.9      6.8       7.6      7.2     6.6
Virgin Islands.....      7.3     6.8      6.6      6.5     5.9         9.5      6.8       6.5      7.5     7.1

NOTE: Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment

                            Births(1)         Deaths(2)             Births             Deaths

Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(3)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

1992  September           N/A      N/A       149     2.8         N/A        N/A      951       1.1
      December            N/A      N/A       153     2.8         N/A        N/A      931       1.0
  
1993  March               N/A      N/A       158     2.9         N/A        N/A    1,038       1.2
      June                175      3.2       155     2.8        1,064       1.2      915       1.0
      September           186      3.4       144     2.6        1,123       1.2      850        .9
      December            174      3.1       147     2.7        1,109       1.2      899       1.0
  
1994  March               180      3.2       157     2.8        1,109       1.2      965       1.0
      June                186      3.3       162     2.9        1,196       1.3      959       1.0
      September           192      3.4       151     2.7        1,184       1.3      849        .9
      December            188      3.3       166     2.9        1,133       1.2      942       1.0
  
1995  March               187      3.3       156     2.7        1,154       1.2      910        .9
      June                189      3.3       162     2.8        1,190       1.2      960       1.0
      September           186      3.2       164     2.9        1,142       1.2      957       1.0
      December            190      3.3       168     2.9        1,164       1.2      972       1.0
  
1996  March               194      3.4       169     2.9        1,193       1.2    1,004       1.0
      June                191      3.3       166     2.9        1,261       1.3      960       1.0
      September           199      3.4       166     2.8        1,233       1.2    1,007       1.0
      December            204      3.5       170     2.9        1,302       1.3      992       1.0
  
1997  March               202      3.4       173     2.9        1,242       1.2    1,055       1.0
      June                195      3.3       174     2.9        1,226       1.2      993       1.0
      September           196      3.3       166     2.8        1,241       1.2    1,007       1.0
      December            196      3.3       184     3.1        1,274       1.2    1,154       1.1
  
1998  March               206      3.4       178     3.0        1,328       1.3    1,165       1.1
      June                206      3.4       167     2.8        1,327       1.3    1,215       1.2
      September           201      3.3       178     2.9        1,257       1.2    1,102       1.0
      December            192      3.1       180     2.9        1,198       1.1    1,088       1.0
  
1999  March               198      3.2       184     3.0        1,305       1.2    1,248       1.2
      June                206      3.4       184     3.0        1,308       1.2    1,118       1.0
      September           206      3.3       186     3.0        1,243       1.2    1,127       1.0
      December            203      3.3       183     3.0        1,207       1.1    1,102       1.0
  
2000  March               211      3.4       186     3.0        1,227       1.1    1,117       1.0
      June                205      3.3       181     2.9        1,142       1.0    1,063       1.0
      September           212      3.4       199     3.2        1,166       1.1    1,167       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,144       1.0    1,120       1.0
  
2001  March               205      3.3       203     3.2        1,174       1.1    1,292       1.2
      June                204      3.2       205     3.3        1,151       1.0    1,236       1.1
      September           204      3.2       209     3.3        1,156       1.1    1,232       1.1
      December            197      3.1       200     3.2        1,121       1.0    1,150       1.1
  
2002  March               203      3.2       190     3.0        1,202       1.1    1,109       1.0
      June                209      3.3       186     2.9        1,192       1.1    1,086       1.0
      September           201      3.2       184     2.9        1,055       1.0    1,026       1.0
      December            203      3.2       191     3.0        1,026       1.0    1,028       1.0
  
2003  March               192      3.0       186     2.9          997        .9    1,007        .9
      June                192      3.0       186     2.9          965        .9      956        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          959        .9      884        .8
      December            201      3.1       179     2.8        1,010        .9      921        .9
  
2004  March               204      3.1       180     2.8          992        .9      912        .8
      June                202      3.1       185     2.8          986        .9      912        .8
      September           210      3.2       186     2.8        1,021        .9      955        .9
      December            212      3.2       180     2.7        1,001        .9      901        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       184     2.8          937        .9      846        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          955        .9      844        .8
      September           220      3.3       185     2.8        1,001        .9      885        .8
      December            223      3.3       188     2.8          980        .9      853        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          913        .8      738        .7
      June                220      3.2       194     2.8          977        .9      846        .8
      September           210      3.1       195     2.8          930        .8      837        .7
      December            221      3.2       193     2.8          969        .9      815        .7
  
2007  March               212      3.1       193     2.8          885        .8      758        .7
      June                204      2.9       202     2.9          886        .8      856        .8
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          948        .8      843        .7
      December            210      3.0       207     3.0          908        .8      841        .7
  
2008  March               209      3.0       N/A     N/A          913        .8      N/A       N/A
      June                195      2.8       N/A     N/A          860        .8      N/A       N/A
      September           187      2.7       N/A     N/A          813        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for births are not available for the first three quarters
    of the time series.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters.
    See the Technical Note for more information.

(3) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: May 19, 2009