Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release: 10:00 A.M. EST                                      USDL 10-0228
Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  SECOND QUARTER 2009          

From March to June 2009 the number of gross job gains from
opening and expanding private sector establishments was 6.4
million, an increase of 674,000 jobs compared to the previous
quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
This is the largest over the quarter increase in gross job gains 
since the series began in 1992. The number of gross job losses
from private sector closing and contracting establishments fell
to 8.0 million in the second quarter of 2009.

Over this period, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in all
industry sectors except education and health services.
(See table 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in 
the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross job 
losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing units 
and the loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between the 
number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the 
net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more 
information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at 
the establishment level by major industry sector and for the 50 
states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin 
Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm 
level by employer size class.

Contracting establishments lost 6.6 million jobs in the second 
quarter of 2009, a decrease of 447,000 job losses compared to the 7.0
million jobs lost in the previous quarter. 

Expanding establishments gained 5.1 million jobs, an increase of
513,000 jobs compared to the previous quarter.

Closing establishments remained essentially unchanged from the
previous quarter at 1.4 million jobs lost.

Opening establishments gained 1.3 million jobs, a sharp increase of
161,000 jobs from the previous quarter.  (See tables 1 and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number 
of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -1,579,000 jobs in the 
private sector for second quarter 2009.

Gross job gains represented 6.0 percent of private sector employment, 
while gross job losses represented 7.5 percent of private sector 
employment.  (See table 2.)

Establishment births, a subset of the openings data (See the Technical
Note for more information), added 740,000 jobs at 177,000 new
establishments in the second quarter 2009, an increase in employment
from the previous quarter. Data for establishment deaths, a subset 
of the closings data, are now available for September 2008,when
882,000 jobs were lost at 223,000 establishments. (See table 7.)

From March to June 2009, gross job losses exceeded gross job 
gains in all industry sectors except education and health services.
(See table 3.)  Gross job gains in the education and health services
sector increased to 770,000 jobs in the second quarter, while gross
job losses decreased to 710,000.  This industry sector is the only
one which has experienced a net positive change in every quarter
since this series began in 1992.

From March to June 2009, the share of gross job gains accounted 
for by firms with 1 to 4 employees fell from 18.2 to 16.9 
percent. Firms with 1,000 or more employees experienced an increase 
in the share of gross job gains from 13.7 to 14.7 percent.  (See 
table 4.)

In the second quarter of 2009, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains
in all states, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico except Alaska where gross job gains exceeded gross job losses.
(See tables 5 and 6.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June 
                                2008    2008    2008    2009    2009 

                                      level (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,296   6,884   6,738   5,746   6,420
 At expanding establishments... 5,869   5,520   5,363   4,603   5,116
 At opening establishments..... 1,427   1,364   1,375   1,143   1,304

Gross job losses............... 7,832   7,851   8,539   8,486   7,999
 At contracting establishments. 6,334   6,461   7,038   7,045   6,598
 At closing establishments..... 1,498   1,390   1,501   1,441   1,401

Net employment change(1).......  -536    -967  -1,801  -2,740  -1,579

                                          rate (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.5     6.1     6.0     5.2     6.0
 At expanding establishments...   5.2     4.9     4.8     4.2     4.8
 At opening establishments.....   1.3     1.2     1.2     1.0     1.2

Gross job losses...............   6.9     6.9     7.6     7.7     7.5
 At contracting establishments.   5.6     5.7     6.3     6.4     6.2
 At closing establishments.....   1.3     1.2     1.3     1.3     1.3

Net employment change(1).......   -.4     -.8    -1.6    -2.5    -1.5

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.


More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross 
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other 
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, charts 
of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, 
and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by e-mailing 
BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

	
The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2009 is scheduled 
to be released on Thursday, May 20, 2010 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).




                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  400,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the second quarter of 2009.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
second quarter of 2009:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                353      8,585       6,626         1,959       8,232       6,395           1,837
      June                 644      8,539       6,661         1,878       7,895       6,210           1,685
      September            588      8,571       6,734         1,837       7,983       6,250           1,733
      December           1,005      8,749       6,956         1,793       7,744       6,076           1,668

2000  March                789      8,792       6,924         1,868       8,003       6,341           1,662
      June                 492      8,499       6,814         1,685       8,007       6,387           1,620
      September            296      8,506       6,728         1,778       8,210       6,483           1,727
      December             295      8,400       6,702         1,698       8,105       6,433           1,672

2001  March               -156      8,436       6,694         1,742       8,592       6,717           1,875
      June                -792      8,009       6,319         1,690       8,801       7,050           1,751
      September         -1,184      7,608       5,917         1,691       8,792       6,991           1,801
      December            -960      7,591       5,932         1,659       8,551       6,858           1,693

2002  March                -39      8,049       6,259         1,790       8,088       6,424           1,664
      June                 -38      7,890       6,164         1,726       7,928       6,290           1,638
      September           -171      7,608       6,015         1,593       7,779       6,248           1,531
      December            -198      7,522       5,960         1,562       7,720       6,171           1,549

2003  March               -412      7,439       5,917         1,522       7,851       6,311           1,540
      June                -104      7,401       5,928         1,473       7,505       6,040           1,465
      September            204      7,383       5,918         1,465       7,179       5,818           1,361
      December             309      7,549       6,016         1,533       7,240       5,802           1,438

2004  March                465      7,709       6,207         1,502       7,244       5,802           1,442
      June                 634      7,747       6,228         1,519       7,113       5,644           1,469
      September            212      7,635       6,062         1,573       7,423       5,880           1,543
      December             775      7,860       6,248         1,612       7,085       5,658           1,427

2005  March                381      7,618       6,139         1,479       7,237       5,805           1,432
      June                 586      7,771       6,223         1,548       7,185       5,779           1,406
      September            676      7,963       6,389         1,574       7,287       5,840           1,447
      December             514      7,826       6,258         1,568       7,312       5,942           1,370

2006  March                800      7,720       6,294         1,426       6,920       5,639           1,281
      June                 417      7,784       6,267         1,517       7,367       6,000           1,367
      September             37      7,493       6,058         1,435       7,456       6,101           1,355
      December             493      7,793       6,254         1,539       7,300       5,947           1,353

2007  March                485      7,651       6,244         1,407       7,166       5,873           1,293
      June                 196      7,653       6,242         1,411       7,457       6,061           1,396
      September           -248      7,325       5,853         1,472       7,573       6,214           1,359
      December             310      7,670       6,214         1,456       7,360       6,010           1,350

2008  March               -280      7,167       5,781         1,386       7,447       6,090           1,357
      June                -536      7,296       5,869         1,427       7,832       6,334           1,498
      September           -967      6,884       5,520         1,364       7,851       6,461           1,390
      December          -1,801      6,738       5,363         1,375       8,539       7,038           1,501

2009  March             -2,740      5,746       4,603         1,143       8,486       7,045           1,441
      June              -1,579      6,420       5,116         1,304       7,999       6,598           1,401

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                 .3       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.7          6.0            1.7
      June                  .6       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      September             .6       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December             1.0       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.1          5.6            1.5

2000  March                 .7       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .3       7.6         6.1           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.2       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.1          6.4            1.7
      December             -.9       7.0         5.5           1.5         7.9          6.3            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.8           1.7         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December              .0       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.1          5.7            1.4

2003  March                -.4       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.3          5.9            1.4
      June                 -.1       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.1          5.7            1.4
      September             .2       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .3       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .5       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.4       6.5         5.2           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.2         4.2           1.0         7.7          6.4            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept.   Dec.    March   June   June   Sept.  Dec.   March  June  
                                   2008    2008    2008    2009    2009   2008   2008   2008   2009   2009
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,296   6,884   6,738   5,746   6,420    6.5    6.1    6.0    5.2    6.0
 At expanding establishments      5,869   5,520   5,363   4,603   5,116    5.2    4.9    4.8    4.2    4.8
 At opening establishments        1,427   1,364   1,375   1,143   1,304    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.0    1.2
Gross job losses                  7,832   7,851   8,539   8,486   7,999    6.9    6.9    7.6    7.7    7.5
 At contracting establishments    6,334   6,461   7,038   7,045   6,598    5.6    5.7    6.3    6.4    6.2
 At closing establishments        1,498   1,390   1,501   1,441   1,401    1.3    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.3
Net employment change              -536    -967  -1,801  -2,740  -1,579    -.4    -.8   -1.6   -2.5   -1.5

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,509   1,421   1,318   1,077   1,266    6.6    6.3    6.0    5.2    6.4
 At expanding establishments      1,272   1,193   1,091     890   1,047    5.6    5.3    5.0    4.3    5.3
 At opening establishments          237     228     227     187     219    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9    1.1
Gross job losses                  1,796   1,794   2,080   2,290   2,145    7.9    8.1    9.5   11.0   10.8
 At contracting establishments    1,500   1,514   1,766   1,983   1,843    6.6    6.8    8.1    9.5    9.3
 At closing establishments          296     280     314     307     302    1.3    1.3    1.4    1.5    1.5
Net employment change              -287    -373    -762  -1,213    -879   -1.3   -1.8   -3.5   -5.8   -4.4

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     286     280     288     225     283   15.2   14.9   15.2   12.0   15.8
 At expanding establishments        246     242     247     193     239   13.1   12.9   13.0   10.3   13.3
 At opening establishments           40      38      41      32      44    2.1    2.0    2.2    1.7    2.5
Gross job losses                    272     259     289     339     307   14.5   13.8   15.2   18.2   17.1
 At contracting establishments      231     224     254     295     263   12.3   11.9   13.4   15.8   14.6
 At closing establishments           41      35      35      44      44    2.2    1.9    1.8    2.4    2.5
Net employment change                14      21      -1    -114     -24     .7    1.1     .0   -6.2   -1.3

Construction

Gross job gains                     745     710     647     558     614   10.2   10.0    9.5    8.6   10.1
 At expanding establishments        594     563     506     437     480    8.1    7.9    7.4    6.7    7.9
 At opening establishments          151     147     141     121     134    2.1    2.1    2.1    1.9    2.2
Gross job losses                    933     888     984     990     940   12.8   12.5   14.4   15.3   15.4
 At contracting establishments      746     709     780     797     759   10.2   10.0   11.4   12.3   12.4
 At closing establishments          187     179     204     193     181    2.6    2.5    3.0    3.0    3.0
Net employment change              -188    -178    -337    -432    -326   -2.6   -2.5   -4.9   -6.7   -5.3

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     478     431     383     294     369    3.5    3.2    2.9    2.4    3.0
 At expanding establishments        432     388     338     260     328    3.2    2.9    2.6    2.1    2.7
 At opening establishments           46      43      45      34      41     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    591     647     807     961     898    4.4    4.8    6.2    7.7    7.5
 At contracting establishments      523     581     732     891     821    3.9    4.3    5.6    7.1    6.9
 At closing establishments           68      66      75      70      77     .5     .5     .6     .6     .6
Net employment change              -113    -216    -424    -667    -529    -.9   -1.6   -3.3   -5.3   -4.5

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,787   5,463   5,420   4,669   5,154    6.4    6.1    6.1    5.3    5.9
 At expanding establishments      4,597   4,327   4,272   3,713   4,069    5.1    4.8    4.8    4.2    4.7
 At opening establishments        1,190   1,136   1,148     956   1,085    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,036   6,057   6,459   6,196   5,854    6.6    6.7    7.2    7.0    6.7
 At contracting establishments    4,834   4,947   5,272   5,062   4,755    5.3    5.5    5.9    5.7    5.4
 At closing establishments        1,202   1,110   1,187   1,134   1,099    1.3    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.3
Net employment change              -249    -594  -1,039  -1,527    -700    -.2    -.6   -1.1   -1.7    -.8

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     297     275     260     225     239    5.0    4.6    4.4    3.9    4.2
 At expanding establishments        239     223     205     178     193    4.0    3.7    3.5    3.1    3.4
 At opening establishments           58      52      55      47      46    1.0     .9     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    318     318     366     383     355    5.3    5.3    6.2    6.6    6.3
 At contracting establishments      246     252     291     313     288    4.1    4.2    4.9    5.4    5.1
 At closing establishments           72      66      75      70      67    1.2    1.1    1.3    1.2    1.2
Net employment change               -21     -43    -106    -158    -116    -.3    -.7   -1.8   -2.7   -2.1

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     944     898     837     752     865    6.0    5.8    5.5    5.1    5.9
 At expanding establishments        784     737     702     624     732    5.0    4.8    4.6    4.2    5.0
 At opening establishments          160     161     135     128     133    1.0    1.0     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                  1,089   1,073   1,195   1,025     915    7.0    6.9    7.9    6.9    6.2
 At contracting establishments      942     930   1,036     841     776    6.1    6.0    6.8    5.7    5.3
 At closing establishments          147     143     159     184     139     .9     .9    1.1    1.2     .9
Net employment change              -145    -175    -358    -273     -50   -1.0   -1.1   -2.4   -1.8    -.3

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     228     211     238     173     184    5.3    4.9    5.6    4.2    4.5
 At expanding establishments        194     178     205     144     151    4.5    4.1    4.8    3.5    3.7
 At opening establishments           34      33      33      29      33     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    258     253     286     311     290    5.9    5.9    6.7    7.4    7.2
 At contracting establishments      213     212     242     268     245    4.9    4.9    5.7    6.4    6.1
 At closing establishments           45      41      44      43      45    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               -30     -42     -48    -138    -106    -.6   -1.0   -1.1   -3.2   -2.7

Utilities

Gross job gains                      16      13      13      12      12    2.9    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.2
 At expanding establishments         14      12      12      11      11    2.5    2.1    2.1    2.0    2.0
 At opening establishments            2       1       1       1       1     .4     .2     .2     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     13      14      12      10      16    2.4    2.5    2.2    1.8    2.9
 At contracting establishments       11      12      11       9      14    2.0    2.1    2.0    1.6    2.5
 At closing establishments            2       2       1       1       2     .4     .4     .2     .2     .4
Net employment change                 3      -1       1       2      -4     .5    -.2     .1     .4    -.7

Information

Gross job gains                     159     132     134     114     111    5.3    4.4    4.6    4.0    3.9
 At expanding establishments        136     109     108      92      90    4.5    3.6    3.7    3.2    3.2
 At opening establishments           23      23      26      22      21     .8     .8     .9     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    161     171     187     172     160    5.3    5.7    6.3    6.0    5.6
 At contracting establishments      128     142     153     144     134    4.2    4.7    5.2    5.0    4.7
 At closing establishments           33      29      34      28      26    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0     .9
Net employment change                -2     -39     -53     -58     -49     .0   -1.3   -1.7   -2.0   -1.7

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     399     381     392     333     339    5.0    4.8    4.9    4.3    4.5
 At expanding establishments        312     295     295     263     265    3.9    3.7    3.7    3.4    3.5
 At opening establishments           87      86      97      70      74    1.1    1.1    1.2     .9    1.0
Gross job losses                    458     465     497     456     445    5.7    5.9    6.3    5.9    5.8
 At contracting establishments      348     355     376     356     351    4.3    4.5    4.8    4.6    4.6
 At closing establishments          110     110     121     100      94    1.4    1.4    1.5    1.3    1.2
Net employment change               -59     -84    -105    -123    -106    -.7   -1.1   -1.4   -1.6   -1.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,356   1,248   1,241     982   1,140    7.6    7.0    7.1    5.8    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,072     995     974     778     908    6.0    5.6    5.6    4.6    5.5
 At opening establishments          284     253     267     204     232    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.2    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,448   1,434   1,635   1,540   1,471    8.1    8.1    9.3    9.0    8.9
 At contracting establishments    1,111   1,164   1,331   1,264   1,163    6.2    6.6    7.6    7.4    7.0
 At closing establishments          337     270     304     276     308    1.9    1.5    1.7    1.6    1.9
Net employment change               -92    -186    -394    -558    -331    -.5   -1.1   -2.2   -3.2   -2.0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     806     808     848     731     770    4.5    4.5    4.7    4.0    4.2
 At expanding establishments        685     683     717     632     647    3.8    3.8    4.0    3.5    3.5
 At opening establishments          121     125     131      99     123     .7     .7     .7     .5     .7
Gross job losses                    721     707     679     723     710    4.0    4.0    3.8    3.9    3.9
 At contracting establishments      589     590     560     606     588    3.3    3.3    3.1    3.3    3.2
 At closing establishments          132     117     119     117     122     .7     .7     .7     .6     .7
Net employment change                85     101     169       8      60     .5     .5     .9     .1     .3

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,192   1,134   1,121   1,023   1,114    8.8    8.5    8.4    7.7    8.5
 At expanding establishments        909     859     835     782     853    6.7    6.4    6.3    5.9    6.5
 At opening establishments          283     275     286     241     261    2.1    2.1    2.1    1.8    2.0
Gross job losses                  1,238   1,276   1,246   1,236   1,174    9.1    9.5    9.4    9.3    9.0
 At contracting establishments    1,004   1,034   1,008   1,009     962    7.4    7.7    7.6    7.6    7.4
 At closing establishments          234     242     238     227     212    1.7    1.8    1.8    1.7    1.6
Net employment change               -46    -142    -125    -213     -60    -.3   -1.0   -1.0   -1.6    -.5

Other services

Gross job gains                     304     287     269     248     265    7.8    7.3    6.9    6.5    7.0
 At expanding establishments        238     223     209     198     208    6.1    5.7    5.4    5.2    5.5
 At opening establishments           66      64      60      50      57    1.7    1.6    1.5    1.3    1.5
Gross job losses                    297     310     323     309     290    7.6    7.9    8.4    8.1    7.7
 At contracting establishments      231     246     255     244     226    5.9    6.3    6.6    6.4    6.0
 At closing establishments           66      64      68      65      64    1.7    1.6    1.8    1.7    1.7
Net employment change                 7     -23     -54     -61     -25     .2    -.6   -1.5   -1.6    -.7

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              June  2008     Sept. 2008      Dec.  2008      March 2009      June  2009


Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   15.7            16.5            17.1            18.2            16.9
   Expanding firms............    7.4             7.7             7.7             8.8             8.0
   Opening firms..............   58.5            60.0            61.6            61.3            58.6
Gross job losses..............   16.0            15.3            14.5            14.9            14.4
   Contracting firms..........    7.7             7.3             6.9             6.9             6.7
   Closing firms..............   60.6            60.8            60.9            61.6            61.5

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   11.9            12.2            11.8            13.3            12.4
   Expanding firms............   11.0            11.4            11.1            12.7            11.7
   Opening firms..............   16.6            16.4            15.3            16.3            15.9
Gross job losses..............   11.9            11.3            10.8            10.9            10.5
   Contracting firms..........   11.1            10.5            10.0            10.1             9.7
   Closing firms..............   15.8            15.8            15.8            15.2            15.8

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.2            12.3            11.8            13.1            12.6
   Expanding firms............   12.4            12.6            12.1            13.7            13.0
   Opening firms..............   11.4            10.9            10.2            10.7            10.8
Gross job losses..............   12.0            11.6            11.2            11.3            10.9
   Contracting firms..........   12.3            11.8            11.3            11.6            11.0
   Closing firms..............   10.3            10.2            10.4             9.9            10.2

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   14.5            14.3            13.6            14.8            14.7
   Expanding firms............   15.6            15.5            14.8            16.3            16.1
   Opening firms..............    8.5             8.1             7.7             7.7             8.3
Gross job losses..............   14.0            13.9            13.5            14.1            13.1
   Contracting firms..........   15.2            15.0            14.5            15.2            14.1
   Closing firms..............    7.6             7.7             7.6             7.3             7.3

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.1             9.0             8.5             8.9             9.1
   Expanding firms............   10.3            10.3             9.7            10.3            10.4
   Opening firms..............    2.9             2.8             2.9             2.5             2.7
Gross job losses..............    8.7             8.7             8.9             9.4             8.5
   Contracting firms..........    9.8             9.8             9.9            10.5             9.5
   Closing firms..............    2.8             2.8             2.6             2.9             2.6

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.7             9.4             9.2             8.9             9.5
   Expanding firms............   11.3            11.0            10.8            10.6            11.2
   Opening firms..............    1.4             1.3             1.5             1.1             1.5
Gross job losses..............    9.0             9.4             9.6            10.1             9.3
   Contracting firms..........   10.4            10.8            10.9            11.5            10.5
   Closing firms..............    1.6             1.5             1.7             1.5             1.6

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.7             5.7             5.6             5.1             5.6
   Expanding firms............    6.7             6.8             6.6             6.1             6.7
   Opening firms..............     .4              .3              .5              .2              .4
Gross job losses..............    5.4             5.6             5.9             6.2             5.9
   Contracting firms..........    6.3             6.5             6.7             7.1             6.8
   Closing firms..............     .6              .5              .7              .6              .6

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.7             4.6             4.6             4.0             4.4
   Expanding firms............    5.5             5.5             5.5             4.9             5.3
   Opening firms..............     .2              .1              .2              .1              .3
Gross job losses..............    4.7             4.8             5.0             5.0             5.3
   Contracting firms..........    5.5             5.6             5.7             5.8             6.1
   Closing firms..............     .3              .3              .3              .4              .2

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   16.6            16.0            17.8            13.7            14.7
   Expanding firms............   19.8            19.2            21.6            16.7            17.6
   Opening firms..............     .0              .0              .0              .1             1.3
Gross job losses..............   18.3            19.4            20.7            18.1            22.1
   Contracting firms..........   21.7            22.8            24.1            21.1            25.7
   Closing firms..............     .6              .4              .1              .7              .1


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.

Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        March     June       June         Sept.      Dec.        March     June 
                        2008       2008       2008        2009      2009       2008         2008       2008        2009      2009

United States1.....  7,296,000  6,884,000  6,738,000   5,746,000  6,420,000  7,832,000   7,851,000   8,539,000  8,486,000  7,999,000

Alabama.....            94,922     94,816     84,322      74,548     80,612    105,846     108,668     120,361    116,192    105,956
Alaska.....             27,331     23,913     26,344      23,272     25,501     23,601      26,373      26,644     25,380     25,347
Arizona.....           135,456    138,104    129,134     113,324    114,433    169,299     161,362     194,424    176,971    167,403
Arkansas.....           57,168     59,379     55,099      51,314     49,030     63,927      62,685      66,942     66,292     69,982
California.....        941,957    832,705    820,460     672,802    772,918  1,013,895     980,907   1,035,009  1,048,711    976,062
Colorado.....          142,169    136,014    127,607     109,813    119,950    143,357     148,883     161,271    161,315    152,189
Connecticut.....        81,736     74,504     71,972      62,355     71,878     83,013      88,540      92,523     91,796     86,207
Delaware.....           23,472     23,376     23,084      18,591     21,917     26,708      28,958      27,469     27,761     24,826
District of Columbia    28,294     28,071     25,184      25,858     24,547     26,859      26,487      31,325     28,003     25,894
Florida.....           456,382    450,727    444,118     354,281    391,029    574,769     569,824     596,670    503,337    496,060

Georgia.....           234,293    221,705    214,969     191,622    206,461    263,788     259,990     299,060    268,140    260,392
Hawaii.....             27,304     25,618     24,171      21,712     22,904     34,549      33,655      33,051     30,629     31,193
Idaho.....              41,269     40,993     38,827      35,289     37,691     48,700      46,621      49,612     54,035     48,908
Illinois.....          279,917    254,616    244,575     209,855    248,535    279,535     299,802     332,994    327,887    322,641
Indiana.....           150,149    144,580    130,650     113,691    127,656    158,041     162,479     192,024    186,934    178,336
Iowa.....               76,433     74,239     71,891      62,521     67,741     78,321      76,942      86,117     86,010     81,445
Kansas.....             73,135     67,406     74,158      55,477     58,952     77,046      75,312      78,873     79,420     81,324
Kentucky.....           91,622     82,629     85,641      74,235     80,446     94,483     100,464     107,293    110,211    102,102
Louisiana.....         106,816    104,278    121,916      94,269     90,921    110,924     121,182     105,935    115,118    120,721
Maine.....              39,345     35,159     38,167      30,943     37,231     39,742      42,833      41,793     42,142     39,597

Maryland.....          130,435    129,603    126,900     116,989    127,395    143,888     141,918     155,992    148,339    138,683
Massachusetts.....     171,611    155,137    148,012     121,358    153,055    161,183     174,428     191,351    181,911    169,900
Michigan.....          226,739    205,112    200,389     164,809    207,715    244,213     264,090     294,392    286,628    299,545
Minnesota.....         140,202    126,433    118,930     110,150    130,928    142,739     144,331     155,332    163,810    150,093
Mississippi.....        56,215     55,227     57,211      48,330     47,816     69,069      67,213      69,254     65,774     64,564
Missouri.....          141,409    133,363    133,009     121,936    127,656    148,981     147,161     168,117    163,155    159,538
Montana.....            27,920     27,560     28,012      24,030     27,411     31,609      28,955      31,386     35,614     29,232
Nebraska.....           44,501     45,532     44,014      38,462     40,000     48,453      45,372      50,286     49,912     48,467
Nevada.....             71,633     66,047     62,481      54,469     55,000     84,432      88,116     100,495     91,854     82,009
New Hampshire.....      38,659     35,183     33,928      31,117     35,690     39,237      39,170      41,931     41,234     41,021

New Jersey.....        229,083    195,759    189,766     167,754    214,410    231,228     239,062     253,478    231,640    228,474
New Mexico.....         44,715     45,984     40,826      36,132     38,339     49,818      46,436      53,047     51,493     49,388
New York.....          471,656    444,515    436,017     356,418    439,771    462,229     471,375     507,653    502,806    496,423
North Carolina.....    210,541    212,080    197,127     173,772    188,633    249,877     238,284     266,978    259,811    236,650
North Dakota.....       19,325     20,282     19,568      16,743     19,483     18,968      18,303      19,341     21,853     19,578
Ohio.....              274,076    246,154    228,078     201,205    236,932    276,452     285,458     323,982    317,188    316,738
Oklahoma.....           83,243     79,824     78,259      69,370     66,260     81,365      79,507      85,333     99,578    100,494
Oregon.....             89,653     98,852     86,304      78,047     86,577    112,034     100,641     126,963    125,470    108,603
Pennsylvania.....      290,004    270,270    256,668     231,793    254,916    287,696     295,758     318,345    318,399    302,189
Rhode Island.....       26,823     24,463     22,015      21,276     24,361     28,139      28,658      30,698     29,893     25,285

South Carolina.....     93,354     88,569     86,056      78,586     86,025    107,890     109,742     123,643    119,015    110,427
South Dakota.....       21,278     21,147     21,073      18,050     20,798     21,816      20,835      22,779     24,121     24,173
Tennessee.....         132,908    125,414    118,251      99,890    118,193    152,948     160,823     165,472    160,793    159,338
Texas.....             529,111    506,352    537,006     435,060    442,377    519,838     538,845     563,136    600,010    598,252
Utah.....               70,663     67,910     65,196      56,649     62,683     78,303      74,639      84,194     84,251     80,188
Vermont.....            18,420     17,186     17,967      15,801     17,916     18,767      19,164      20,207     21,649     21,155
Virginia.....          188,460    179,200    171,660     151,646    168,537    191,564     201,098     211,212    203,738    198,874
Washington.....        161,196    172,096    157,410     151,373    158,451    190,631     165,586     206,251    202,667    190,911
West Virginia.....      35,567     38,757     39,356      34,103     32,836     38,230      36,898      40,515     43,258     44,398
Wisconsin.....         140,273    131,758    129,090     113,792    124,463    145,014     150,873     162,823    174,665    160,442

Wyoming.....            19,701     21,355     19,848      18,033     15,800     23,018      18,960      20,038     26,326     25,436
Puerto Rico.....        44,888     44,689     45,140      36,240     37,255     52,203      49,724      51,035     57,413     50,935
Virgin Islands.....      2,191      2,049      1,978       1,610      1,618      2,513       2,286       2,238      2,611      2,702

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     March   June        June     Sept.     Dec.    March    June 
                        2008    2008     2008     2009    2009        2008     2008      2008    2009     2009

United States1.....      6.5     6.1      6.0      5.2     6.0         6.9      6.9       7.6      7.7     7.5

Alabama.....             6.0     6.0      5.4      4.9     5.5         6.7      6.9       7.8      7.7     7.2
Alaska.....             11.5    10.1     11.1      9.7    10.8         9.9     11.1      11.2     10.7    10.8
Arizona.....             6.1     6.3      6.0      5.5     5.7         7.6      7.4       9.1      8.6     8.4
Arkansas.....            5.9     6.1      5.7      5.4     5.3         6.5      6.4       6.9      6.9     7.4
California.....          7.3     6.5      6.5      5.5     6.5         7.8      7.6       8.3      8.5     8.1
Colorado.....            7.2     7.0      6.7      5.9     6.5         7.3      7.6       8.3      8.5     8.2
Connecticut.....         5.6     5.2      5.1      4.5     5.2         5.8      6.1       6.5      6.6     6.3
Delaware.....            6.4     6.4      6.5      5.3     6.3         7.2      8.0       7.7      7.9     7.2
District of Columbia..   6.3     6.2      5.6      5.8     5.5         6.0      5.8       7.0      6.3     5.8
Florida.....             6.8     6.8      6.9      5.7     6.4         8.6      8.7       9.2      8.0     8.1

Georgia.....             7.0     6.6      6.6      6.0     6.5         7.8      7.8       9.1      8.4     8.2
Hawaii.....              5.4     5.1      4.9      4.5     4.8         6.8      6.8       6.8      6.4     6.6
Idaho.....               7.6     7.6      7.3      6.8     7.5         8.9      8.6       9.4     10.4     9.8
Illinois.....            5.5     5.0      4.9      4.4     5.2         5.5      5.9       6.7      6.8     6.8
Indiana.....             6.1     5.8      5.3      4.8     5.6         6.3      6.6       7.9      7.9     7.7
Iowa.....                6.0     5.9      5.8      5.1     5.6         6.2      6.2       7.0      7.0     6.8
Kansas.....              6.6     6.1      6.7      5.1     5.4         6.8      6.7       7.1      7.2     7.6
Kentucky.....            6.1     5.5      5.9      5.2     5.7         6.3      6.8       7.3      7.6     7.2
Louisiana.....           6.9     6.8      7.9      6.1     6.1         7.2      7.9       6.9      7.5     8.0
Maine.....               7.9     7.0      7.7      6.3     7.8         7.9      8.5       8.5      8.6     8.2

Maryland.....            6.3     6.3      6.2      5.8     6.4         7.0      6.9       7.6      7.3     7.0
Massachusetts.....       6.1     5.5      5.3      4.4     5.7         5.8      6.2       6.9      6.6     6.2
Michigan.....            6.5     5.9      5.9      5.0     6.5         6.9      7.6       8.7      8.7     9.4
Minnesota.....           6.1     5.5      5.2      4.9     6.0         6.1      6.2       6.8      7.3     6.8
Mississippi.....         6.2     6.3      6.5      5.6     5.6         7.7      7.6       7.9      7.6     7.7
Missouri.....            6.1     5.9      5.9      5.5     5.9         6.5      6.5       7.4      7.3     7.4
Montana.....             7.8     7.7      7.9      6.9     8.0         8.8      8.1       8.9     10.3     8.6
Nebraska.....            5.8     6.0      5.8      5.1     5.4         6.3      6.0       6.6      6.6     6.5
Nevada.....              6.5     6.0      5.8      5.3     5.5         7.6      8.1       9.4      8.9     8.3
New Hampshire.....       7.1     6.5      6.4      5.9     6.8         7.2      7.2       7.8      7.8     7.8

New Jersey.....          6.9     5.9      5.8      5.2     6.8         6.9      7.2       7.7      7.2     7.2
New Mexico.....          7.0     7.2      6.5      5.9     6.3         7.8      7.3       8.4      8.3     8.2
New York.....            6.6     6.2      6.1      5.0     6.4         6.4      6.6       7.2      7.1     7.2
North Carolina.....      6.3     6.3      5.9      5.4     5.9         7.4      7.1       8.1      8.1     7.5
North Dakota.....        6.8     7.1      6.8      5.9     6.8         6.7      6.4       6.8      7.7     6.9
Ohio.....                6.1     5.5      5.2      4.7     5.6         6.1      6.3       7.3      7.4     7.5
Oklahoma.....            6.7     6.5      6.3      5.7     5.6         6.6      6.4       6.9      8.2     8.5
Oregon.....              6.2     6.9      6.1      5.7     6.4         7.8      7.0       9.0      9.2     8.1
Pennsylvania.....        5.9     5.5      5.2      4.8     5.3         5.8      6.0       6.5      6.6     6.3
Rhode Island.....        6.5     6.0      5.4      5.4     6.2         6.9      7.1       7.7      7.6     6.5

South Carolina.....      6.0     5.8      5.7      5.4     6.0         6.9      7.2       8.2      8.1     7.7
South Dakota.....        6.5     6.5      6.5      5.6     6.5         6.7      6.4       7.0      7.5     7.6
Tennessee.....           5.7     5.4      5.2      4.5     5.4         6.5      7.0       7.3      7.3     7.4
Texas.....               6.1     5.8      6.2      5.0     5.2         6.0      6.2       6.5      7.0     7.1
Utah.....                6.9     6.7      6.5      5.8     6.5         7.6      7.3       8.3      8.6     8.4
Vermont.....             7.4     6.9      7.2      6.5     7.5         7.5      7.7       8.1      8.8     8.8
Virginia.....            6.3     6.0      5.8      5.2     5.9         6.4      6.7       7.2      7.0     7.0
Washington.....          6.7     7.2      6.7      6.5     6.9         7.9      6.9       8.7      8.7     8.4
West Virginia.....       6.2     6.8      6.9      6.0     5.9         6.7      6.4       7.1      7.7     8.0
Wisconsin.....           5.8     5.5      5.4      4.9     5.5         6.1      6.3       6.9      7.5     7.1

Wyoming.....             8.8     9.6      8.9      8.1     7.4        10.3      8.5       8.9     11.9    12.0
Puerto Rico.....         6.2     6.2      6.3      5.2     5.4         7.2      6.9       7.1      8.2     7.4
Virgin Islands.....      6.7     6.3      6.1      5.1     5.3         7.7      7.0       6.9      8.2     8.8

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

1999  March               198      3.2       184     3.0        1,305       1.2    1,248       1.2
      June                206      3.4       184     3.0        1,308       1.2    1,118       1.0
      September           206      3.3       186     3.0        1,243       1.2    1,127       1.0
      December            203      3.3       183     3.0        1,207       1.1    1,102       1.0
  
2000  March               211      3.4       186     3.0        1,227       1.1    1,117       1.0
      June                205      3.3       181     2.9        1,142       1.0    1,063       1.0
      September           212      3.4       199     3.2        1,166       1.1    1,167       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,144       1.0    1,120       1.0
  
2001  March               205      3.3       203     3.2        1,174       1.1    1,292       1.2
      June                204      3.2       205     3.3        1,151       1.0    1,236       1.1
      September           204      3.2       209     3.3        1,156       1.1    1,232       1.1
      December            197      3.1       200     3.2        1,121       1.0    1,150       1.1
  
2002  March               203      3.2       190     3.0        1,202       1.1    1,109       1.0
      June                209      3.3       186     2.9        1,192       1.1    1,086       1.0
      September           201      3.2       184     2.9        1,055       1.0    1,026       1.0
      December            203      3.2       191     3.0        1,026       1.0    1,028       1.0
  
2003  March               192      3.0       186     2.9          997        .9    1,007        .9
      June                192      3.0       186     2.9          965        .9      956        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          959        .9      884        .8
      December            201      3.1       179     2.8        1,010        .9      921        .9
  
2004  March               205      3.2       180     2.8          998        .9      914        .9
      June                202      3.1       184     2.8          982        .9      909        .8
      September           210      3.2       186     2.8        1,017        .9      955        .9
      December            212      3.2       181     2.7        1,001        .9      900        .8
  
2005  March               210      3.2       185     2.8          943        .9      850        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          952        .9      839        .8
      September           220      3.3       186     2.8          995        .9      886        .8
      December            224      3.3       188     2.8          980        .9      852        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       181     2.7          921        .8      739        .7
      June                220      3.2       194     2.8          975        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          926        .8      837        .7
      December            222      3.2       194     2.8          969        .9      815        .7
  
2007  March               212      3.1       193     2.8          890        .8      763        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          882        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          942        .8      845        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          909        .8      841        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      803        .7
      June                199      2.9       227     3.3          875        .8      936        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          829        .7      882        .8
      December            193      2.8       N/A     N/A          808        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2009  March               171      2.5       N/A     N/A          697        .6      N/A       N/A
      June                177      2.6       N/A     N/A          740        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: February 23, 2010