Multifactor Productivity (MFP) relates output to a combined set of inputs. Two BLS programs produce Multifactor Productivity measures for sectors of the U.S. economy.

The Major Sector Productivity program publishes annual measures of output per unit of combined inputs for the private business, private nonfarm business, and manufacturing sectors and for 18 NAICS 3-digit manufacturing industries.

The Industry Productivity program publishes annual measures of output per unit of combined inputs for 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries, the air transportation industry, and the line-haul railroad industry.

For Your Information

Multifactor productivity tables are now available that present KLEMS multifactor industry measures for nonmanufacturing sectors and nonmanufacturing industries through 2012. For additional information concerning data sources and methods of measuring nonmanufacturing KLEMS multifactor productivity see "Nonmanufacturing industry contributions to multifactor productivity, 1987-2006 (PDF)

Multifactor productivity data for the private business and private nonfarm business sectors were corrected August 21, 2014. For more information, see http://www.bls.gov/bls/errata/2012_ mfp_correction.htm.

Detailed intellectual property capital measures are now available that represent capital measures for research and development, software, and artistic originals through 2012.

Total economy production account tables are now available that present total economy measures through 2012. Additionally, non-profit, owner-occupied and government detailed capital measures are now available through 2012 by NIPA-level industry. For additional information concerning data sources and methods of measuring the total economy see "Integrated GDP-Productivity Accounts," (PDF)

Multifactor productivity and related data for the air transportation industry and the line-haul railroads industry are now available through 2012. For the 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries, these data are available through 2011.

MFP News Releases

Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing

August 21, 2014
In 2012 multifactor productivity in manufacturing increased 0.6 percent, durable manufacturing 1.4 percent, and nondurable manufacturing was unchanged. Multifactor productivity in manufacturing grew faster than in 2011. More...
(HTML) (PDF)

Preliminary Multifactor Productivity Trends, 2013

July 09, 2014
In 2013 multifactor productivity grew at a 0.3 percent annual rate in the private nonfarm business sector and 0.7 percent in the private business sector. In both sectors, multifactor productivity grew considerably slower than in 2012. More...
(HTML) (PDF)

Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries

September 25, 2013
Multifactor productivity rose in 55 of the 86 detailed manufacturing industries in 2011, compared to 63 of the industries in 2010. Among transportation industries, multifactor productivity increased in air transportation and declined in line-haul railroads. More...
(HTML) (PDF)

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MFP Tables and Charts

Major Sector and 3-Digit NAICS Manufacturing Industries

IMPORTANT Download standard multifactor data tables:

Analytic Tables and Charts

  • Contributions of Manufacturing Industries to private nonfarm business multifactor productivity (PDF)
  • Sources of growth in Real Output in the private nonfarm business sector (PDF)
  • Contribution of Research and Development to Private Nonfarm Business Multifactor Productivity including Research and Development stocks (PDF)
  • Research and Development Contributions and Stocks in the Total Economy (PDF)
  • Sources of growth in Real Output in the private business sector (PDF)
  • Contributions of Nonmanufacturing Industries to private nonfarm business multifactor productivity (PDF)

Four-Digit NAICS Manufacturing Industries, Air Transportation, and Line-Haul Railroads

  • Multifactor Productivity and Related Data - May 21, 2014 (XLSX)

MFP Technical Documentation

  • Technical Information About the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit Manufacturing Industries (HTML) (PDF 130 KB) )
  • Overview of Output Measures Used by BLS to Construct Productivity Statistics for Major Sectors of the U.S. Economy (PDF 130 KB)
  • Changes in the Composition of Labor for BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures (HTML) (PDF 96 KB)
  • Technical Note on Public R&D and Productivity Growth (HTML) (PDF 204 KB)
  • Overview of Capital Inputs for the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures (HTML) (PDF 213 KB)

MFP Publications

  • NEW “Integrated Industry-Level Production Account for the United States: Intellectual Property Products and the 2007 NAICS” (PDF), by Steven Rosenthal, Matthew Russell, Jon Samuels, Erich H. Strassner, and Lisa Usher. Paper was presented at the 3rd World KLEMS conference | May 19-20, 2014 | Tokyo, Japan. Tables (XLXS). A summary of this paper was published as a Research Spotlight in the August 2014 edition of the Survey of Current Business
  • "A Prototype BEA/BLS Industry-Level Production Account for the United States," (PDF 1,717K, Tables XLS), by Susan Fleck, Steven Rosenthal, Matthew Russell, Erich H. Strassner, and Lisa Usher. November 2012. Presented at the 2nd World KLEMS Conference in August 2012. A summary of this paper was published as a Research Spotlight in the November 2012 edition of the Survey of Current Business (PDF).
  • "Nonmanufacturing industry contributions to multifactor productivity, 19872006," (PDF 1,000K), by Michael J. Harper, Bhavani Khandrika, Randal Kinoshita, and Steven Rosenthal, Monthly Labor Review, June 2010, pp. 16-31.
  • "Effects of imported intermediate inputs on productivity,"(PDF 2,067K), by Lucy P. Eldridge and Michael J. Harper, Monthly Labor Review, June 2010, pp. 3-15.
  • "Integrated GDP-Productivity Accounts," (PDF), by Michael J. Harper, Brent R. Moulton, Steven Rosenthal, and David B. Wasshausen. December 2008. Presented at the American Economic Association Meetings in January 2009.
  • "Preliminary Estimate of Multifactor Productivity Growth" (PDF), by Peter B. Meyer and Michael J. Harper, Monthly Labor Review, June 2005, pp. 32-43.
  • An error in the multifactor productivity growth rate for 2003 appeared in the original article but it has been corrected in both the electronic and paper versions as of July 8th. Those who downloaded the earlier version should download the corrected version.
  • "Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry" (PDF), by John Duke and Victor Torres, Monthly Labor Review, March 2005, pp.32-45.
  • "Multifactor Productivity Measures for Three-digit SIC Manufacturing Industries, 1990-99," (PDF) Report 956, January 2002.
  • "Multifactor productivity trends in manufacturing industries, 1987-96," (PDF), by Ziaul Z. Ahmed and Patricia S. Wilder, Monthly Labor Review, June 2001, pp.3-11.
  • Archive of MLR Articles on Productivity and Technology.
  • "Productivity Measures: Business Sector and Major Subsectors," Chapter 10 of the BLS Handbook of Methods, BLS Bulletin 2490, April 1997, pp. 89-102.
  • BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 11, Industry Productivity Measures (HTML) (PDF 196K).
  • "Data sources and methods for measuring multifactor productivity in the utility services industries," (PDF).
  • "The BLS Productivity Measurement Program," (PDF), by Edwin R. Dean and Michael J. Harper, Discussion Paper presented at the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth: New Directions in Productivity Research, March 20-21, 1998.
  • "Hours at Work Survey, 2000," (PDF), Brief description of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Hours at Work Survey for 2000.
  • "Productivity Measurement with Changing-Weight Indexes of Outputs and Inputs," (PDF), by Edwin R. Dean, Michael J. Harper, and Mark K. Sherwood. Discussion paper presented at the OECD Expert Workshop on Productivity: International Comparison and Measurement Issues, May 2-3, 1996.
  • "Measurement of Productivity Growth in U.S. Manufacturing," (PDF), by William Gullickson, Monthly Labor Review, July 1995, pp. 13-27.
  • "Difficulties in the Measurement of Service Outputs," (PDF 1,417K) by Mark Sherwood, Monthly Labor Review, March 1994, pp. 11-19.
  • "Hours at Work: A New Base for BLS Productivity Statistics," (PDF) by Mary Jablonski, Kent Kunze, and Phyllis Flohr Otto, Monthly Labor Review, February 1990, pp. 17-24.

Available on Request:

  • Labor Composition and U. S. Productivity Growth, 1948-90, BLS Bulletin 2426, December 1993. Changes in the educational attainment of the work force and their impact on MFP are measured.
  • The Impact of Research and Development on Productivity Growth, BLS Bulletin 2331, 1989. Presents annual measures of the stock of research and development and its contribution to productivity growth in the nonfarm business sector.
  • Trends in Multifactor Productivity, 1948-81, BLS Bulletin 2178, 1983. Presents BLS annual indexes of MFP and output per unit of capital services for private business, private nonfarm business, and manufacturing.

MFP FAQs

MFP Special Notices

Contact MFP

Multifactor Productivity for Major Sectors (Annual Measures)
  General Information and Help
    Major Sector Productivity staff (202) 691-5606 Staff
  Analysis and methodology
    Steve Rosenthal (202) 691-5609 Rosenthal.Steve@bls.gov
  Data
    Randy Kinoshita (202) 691-5610 Kinoshita.Randal@bls.gov
    Ryan Forshay (202) 691-5617 Forshay.Ryan@bls.gov
 
Multifactor Productivity for Manufacturing and 3-digit NAICS Industries (KLEMS Annual Measures)
  Analysis and methodology
    Steve Rosenthal (202) 691-5609 Rosenthal.Steve@bls.gov
  Data
    Randy Kinoshita (202) 691-5610 Kinoshita.Randal@bls.gov
 
Multifactor Productivity for 4-digit NAICS Manufacturing Industries, Air Transportation, and Line-Haul Railroad Transportation
  Analysis and methodology
    Chris Kask (202) 691-5647 Kask.Chris@bls.gov
    Victor Torres (202) 691-5626 Torres.Victor@bls.gov
  Capital Data
    Victor Torres (202) 691-5626 Torres.Victor@bls.gov
  Intermediate Purchases Data
    Chris Kask (202) 691-5647 Kask.Chris@bls.gov
 
Capital Measurement for Major Sector and 3-digit NAICS Industries
  Analysis and methodology
    Steve Rosenthal (202) 691-5609 Rosenthal.Steve@bls.gov
  Data
    Randy Kinoshita (202) 691-5610 Kinoshita.Randal@bls.gov
    Ryan Forshay (202) 691-5617 Forshay.Ryan@bls.gov
 
Labor Composition
  Analysis and methodology
    Cindy Zoghi (202) 691-5680 Zoghi.Cindy@bls.gov
  Data
    Ryan Forshay (202) 691-5617 Forshay.Ryan@bls.gov
 
Hours at Work Ratio
  Shawn Sprague (202) 691-5612 Sprague.Shawn@bls.gov
 
Research and Development
  Analysis and methodology
    Leo Sveikauskas (202) 691-5677 Sveikauskas.Leo@bls.gov
  Data
    Bhavani Khandrika (202) 691-5620 Khandrika.Bhavani@bls.gov

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